Table of Contents
Metal-Based Drugs
Volume 3, Issue 5, Pages 243-260

Synthesis, Characterization and Solution Chemistry of trans-Indazoliumtetrachlorobis(Indazole)Ruthenate(III), a New Anticancer Ruthenium Complex. IR, UV, NMR, HPLC Investigations and Antitumor Activity. Crystal Structures of trans-1-Methyl-Indazoliumtetrachlorobis-(1-Methylindazole)Ruthenate(III) and its Hydrolysis Product trans-Monoaquatrichlorobis-(1-Methylindazole)-Ruthenate(III)

Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 270, Heidelberg D-69120, Germany

Received 22 September 1996; Accepted 24 September 1996

Copyright © 1996 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Besides intensive studies into the synthesis of the complex trans-Hlnd[RuCl4(ind)2] (Ind = indazole) 1, which differs remarkably from the usual method for the complexes of the HL[RuCl4L2] - type, competitive products and hydrolysis of this species are described. Stability and pseudo-first-order rate constant under physiological conditions of complex 1 in comparison with the analogous imidazole complex trans-Hlm[RuCl4(im)2] (Im = imidaZole) ICR were examined by means of HPLC, UV and conductivity measurements (Kobs.(1) = 1.55 × 10-4s-1; Kobs.(ICR) = 9.10 × 10-4s-1). An attempt was made to elucidate the bonding conditions in 1 by studying the reactions of Ru(lll) and the two N-methyl isomers of indazole. It can be expected that bonding in the unsubstituted ligand should occur via the N2 nitrogen. The molecular structures of the complex trans-H(1-Melnd)[RuCl4(1-Melnd)2] × 1H2O (1-Melnd = 1-methylindazole) 6 and its hydrolysis product in aqueous solution [RuCl3(H2O)(1-Melnd)2]7 were determined crystallographically. After anisotropic refinement of F values by least squares, R is 0.053 for 6 and 0.059 for 7. Both complexes crystallize with four molecules in a unit cell of monoclinic symmetry. The space group is P2.1/n for 6 with cell dimensions a = 10.511Å, b = 13.87Å, c = 19.93Å, and β = 98.17° and C2/c for 7 with a = 19.90Å, b = 10.94Å, c = 8.490Å and β = 96.74° The fact that the aqua species 7 could be isolated after dissolving 6 in a water/acetone solution confirmed the theory of many Ru(lll) complexes being initially transformed, under physiological conditions, into aqua complexes in a first and often rate-determining hydrolysis step. Compounds 1 and ICR are potent antitumor agents which exhibit activity against a variety of tumor cells and experimental tumor models in animals, including autochthonous colorectal tumors. Clinical studies with 1 are in preparation.