Table of Contents
Molecular Biology International
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 628153, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2010/628153
Research Article

Expression of a Gene Encoding 34.9 kDa PPE Antigen of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in E. coli

Gene Expression Laboratory, Division of Animal Biotechnology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh 243 122, India

Received 4 January 2010; Accepted 25 March 2010

Academic Editor: Mouldy Sioud

Copyright © 2010 Rajib Deb and P. P. Goswami. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. W. Sweeney, D. E. Jones, P. Habecker, and P. Scott, “Interferon-γ and interleukin 4 gene expression in cows infected with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis,” American Journal of Veterinary Research, vol. 59, no. 7, pp. 842–847, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  2. L. A. Sechi, M. Mura, F. Tanda et al., “Identification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in biopsy specimens from patients with Crohn's disease identified by in situ hybridization,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 4514–4517, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  3. L. A. Sechi, A. M. Scanu, P. Molicotti et al., “Detection and isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from intestinal mucosal biopsies of patients with and without Crohn's disease,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 100, no. 7, pp. 1529–1536, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  4. A. H. Ghadiali, M. Strother, S. A. Naser, E. J. Manning, and S. Sreevatsan, “Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains isolated from Crohn's disease patients and animal species exhibit similar polymorphic locus patterns,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 42, no. 11, pp. 5345–5348, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  5. S. A. Naser, G. Ghobrial, C. Romero, and J. F. Valentine, “Culture of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis from the blood of patients with Crohn's disease,” Lancet, vol. 364, no. 9439, pp. 1039–1044, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  6. R. J. Greenstein, “Is Crohn's disease caused by a mycobacterium? Comparisons with leprosy, tuberculosis, and Johne's disease,” Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 507–514, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. R. J. Greenstein and M. T. Collins, “Emerging pathogens: is Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis zoonotic?” Lancet, vol. 364, no. 9432, pp. 396–397, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  8. L. M. Mutharia, W. Moreno, and M. Raymond, “Analysis of culture fiLtrate and cell wall-associated antigens of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis with monoclonal antibodies,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 387–394, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  9. A. J. Cobb and R. Frothingham, “The GroES antigens of Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium paratuberculosis,” Veterinary Microbiology, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 31–35, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. I. Olsen, L. J. Reitan, G. Holstad, and H. G. Wiker, “Alkyl hydroperoxide reductases C and D are major antigens constitutively expressed by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 801–808, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. J. Mullerad, I. Michal, V. Fishman, A. H. HOrar, R. G. Barletta, and H. Bercovier, “The imunogenecity of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis 85B antigen,” Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, vol. 190, pp. 179–187, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  12. J. Mullerad, A.-H. Hovav, Y. Fishman, R. G. Barletta, and H. Bercovier, “Antigenicity of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis superoxide dismutase in mice,” FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 81–88, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. S. H. Basagoudanavar, P. P. Goswami, V. Tiwari, A. K. Pandey, and N. Singh, “Heterologous expression of a gene encoding a 35 kDa protein of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis in Escherichia coli,” Veterinary Research Communications, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 209–224, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. S. H. Basagoudanavar, P. P. Goswami, and V. Tiwari, “Cellular immune responses to 35 kDa recombinant antigen of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis,” Veterinary Research Communications, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 357–367, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  15. J. Mullerad, A.-H. Hovav, R. Nahary, Y. Fishman, and H. Bercovier, “Immunogenicity of a 16.7 kDa Mycobacterium paratuberculosis antigen,” Microbial Pathogenesis, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 81–90, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. M. Kadam, S. Shardul, J. L. Bhagath, V. Tiwari, N. Prasad, and P. P. Goswami, “Coexpression of 16.8 kDa antigen of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis and murine gamma interferon in a bicistronic vector and studies on its potential as DNA vaccine,” Veterinary Research Communications, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 597–610, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  17. M. F. M. Langelaar, C. N. Weber, M. B. Overdijk, K. E. Müller, A. P. Koets, and V. P. M. G. Rutten, “Cytokine gene expression profiles of bovine dendritic cells after interaction with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (M.a.p.), Escherichia coli (E. coli) or recombinant M.a.p. heat shock protein 70,” Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, vol. 107, no. 1-2, pp. 153–161, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  18. V. Rosseels, S. Marche, V. Roupie et al., “Members of the 30- to 32-kilodalton mycolyl transferase family (Ag85) from culture filtrate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis are immunodominant Th1-type antigens recognized early upon infection in mice and cattle,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 202–212, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  19. M. Parra, N. Cadieux, T. Pickett, V. Dheenadhayalan, and M. J. Brennan, “A PE protein expressed by Mycobacterium avium is an effective T-cell immunogen,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 786–789, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  20. J. F. Huntley, J. R. Stabel, M. L. Paustian, T. A. Reinhardt, and J. P. Bannantine, “Expression library immunization confers protection against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 73, no. 10, pp. 6877–6884, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  21. R. K. Choudhary, S. Mukhopadhyay, P. Chakhaiyar et al., “PPE Antigen Rv2430c of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces a strong B-cell response,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 71, no. 11, pp. 6338–6343, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. V. Newton, S. L. McKenna, and J. De Buck, “Presence of PPE proteins in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates and their immunogenicity in cattle,” Veterinary Microbiology, vol. 135, no. 3-4, pp. 394–400, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  23. S. Nair, P. A. Ramaswamy, S. Ghosh et al., “The PPE18 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis interacts with TLR2 and activates IL-10 induction in macrophage,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 183, pp. 6269–6281, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  24. S. T. Cole, R. Brosch, J. Parkhill et al., “Deciphering the biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the complete genome sequence,” Nature, vol. 393, no. 6685, pp. 537–544, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  25. M. J. Brennan, G. Delogu, Y. Chen et al., “Evidence that mycobacterial PE_PGRS proteins are cell surface constituents that influence interactions with other cells,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 69, no. 12, pp. 7326–7333, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  26. L. Ramakrishnan, N. A. Federspiel, and S. Falkow, “Granuloma-specific expression of Mycobacterium virulence proteins from the glycine-rich PE-PGRS family,” Science, vol. 288, no. 5470, pp. 1436–1439, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. S. L. Sampson, P. Lukey, R. M. Warren, P. D. van Helden, M. Richardson, and M. J. Everett, “Expression, characterization and subcellular localization of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis PPE gene Rv1917c,” Tuberculosis, vol. 81, no. 5-6, pp. 305–317, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  28. L. M. Okkels, I. Brock, F. Follmann et al., “PPE protein (Rv3873) from DNA segment RD1 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: strong recognition of both specific T-cell epitopes and epitopes conserved within the PPE family,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 71, no. 11, pp. 6116–6123, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. M. G. Chaitra, R. Nayak, and M. S. Shaila, “Modulation of immune responses in mice to recombinant antigens from PE and PPE families of proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the Ribi adjuvant,” Vaccine, vol. 25, no. 41, pp. 7168–7176, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  30. Y. Li, E. Miltner, M. Wu, M. Petrofsky, and L. E. Bermudez, “A Mycobacterium avium PPE gene is associated with the ability of the bacterium to grow in macrophages and virulence in mice,” Cellular Microbiology, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 539–548, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  31. R. Nagata, Y. Muneta, K. Yoshihara, Y. Yokomizo, and Y. Mori, “Expression cloning of gamma interferon-inducing antigens of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 73, no. 6, pp. 3778–3782, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  32. P. D. Portillo, L. A. Murillo, and M. E. Patarroyo, “Genetically engineered vaccines: an overview,” Plasmid, vol. 39, pp. 100–113, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  33. J. Sambrook and D. W. Russel, Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, USA, 3rd edition, 2001.
  34. O. H. Lowry, N. J. Rosebrough, A. L. Farr, and R. J. Randall, “Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 193, no. 1, pp. 265–275, 1951. View at Google Scholar
  35. E. Harlow and D. Lane, Antibodies, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, USA, 1988.
  36. U. K. Laemmli, “Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4,” Nature, vol. 227, no. 5259, pp. 680–685, 1970. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. H. Towbin, T. Staehelin, and J. Gordon, “Electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets: procedure and some applications,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 76, no. 9, pp. 4350–4354, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  38. O. J. Bjerrum and C. Schafter-Nielson, “Buffer systems and transfer parameters for semidry electroblotting with a horizontal apparatus,” in Electrophoresis 86, Dunn, Ed., pp. 315–327, VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  39. J. Kyte and R. F. Doolittle, “A simple method for displaying the hydropathic character of a protein,” Journal of Molecular Biology, vol. 157, no. 1, pp. 105–132, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  40. Y. A. W. Skeiky, J. Pamela, P. J. Ovendale et al., “T cell expression cloning of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis gene encoding a protective antigen associated with the early control of infection,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 165, no. 12, pp. 7140–7149, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  41. L. M. Okkels, I. Brock, F. Follmann et al., “PPE Protein (Rv3873) from DNA Segment RD1 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: strong recognition of both specific T-cell epitopes and epitopes conserved within the PPE family,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 71, no. 11, pp. 6116–6123, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. J. Wang, Y. Qie, H. Zhang et al., “PPE protein (Rv3425) from DNA segment RD11 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a novel immunodominant antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces humoral and cellular immune responses in mice,” Microbiology and Immunology, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 224–230, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  43. S. Kumar, U. Tuteja, A. Kumar, and H. V. Batra, “Expression and purification of the 26 kDa periplasmic protein of Brucella abortus: a reagent for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis,” Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry, vol. 49, no. 3-4, pp. 213–218, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  44. W. P. Sisk, J. D. Bradley, R. J. Leipold et al., “High-level expression and purification of secreted forms of herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein gD synthesized by baculovirus-infected insect cells,” Journal of Virology, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 766–775, 1994. View at Google Scholar