Figure 1: MiR-146a negatively regulates signal transduction pathways leading to NF-κB activation. Upon activation of a cell surface receptor such as TLR4, a molecular cascade including TRAF6 and IRAK1 leads to IκBα phosphorylation and degradation and to NF-κB activation and nuclear translocation [12, 42]. NF-κB activation induces transcription of many genes, including pri-miR-146a. Once translocated to the cytoplasm and loaded onto the RISC complex, mature miR-146a contributes to attenuate receptor signaling through the downmodulation of IRAK1 and TRAF6.