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Molecular Biology International
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 153415, 10 pages
Review Article

TRIM22: A Diverse and Dynamic Antiviral Protein

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Human Immunology, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada N6A 5C1

Received 9 January 2012; Accepted 24 February 2012

Academic Editor: Abraham Brass

Copyright © 2012 Clayton J. Hattlmann et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The tripartite motif (TRIM) family of proteins is an evolutionarily ancient group of proteins with homologues identified in both invertebrate and vertebrate species. Human TRIM22 is one such protein that has a dynamic evolutionary history that includes gene expansion, gene loss, and strong signatures of positive selection. To date, TRIM22 has been shown to restrict the replication of a number of viruses, including encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In addition, TRIM22 has also been implicated in cellular differentiation and proliferation and may play a role in certain cancers and autoimmune diseases. This comprehensive paper summarizes our current understanding of TRIM22 structure and function.