Table of Contents
Molecular Biology International
Volume 2014, Article ID 490308, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/490308
Research Article

Interleukin-6 c.-174G>C Polymorphism and Periodontitis in a Brazilian Population

1Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Multidisciplinary Health Institute, Federal University of Bahia, 45029-094 Vitória da Conquista, BA, Brazil
2Health Sciences Center, Federal University of Bahia Recôncavo, 44380-000 Santo Antonio de Jesus, BA, Brazil
3Laboratory of Microbiology and Immunology, Multidisciplinary Health Institute, Federal University of Bahia, 45029-094 Vitória da Conquista, BA, Brazil
4NUPEM, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Avenida São José do Barreto, 764 São José do Barreto, 27965-045 Macaé, RJ, Brazil

Received 17 September 2014; Revised 12 November 2014; Accepted 19 November 2014; Published 4 December 2014

Academic Editor: Alessandro Desideri

Copyright © 2014 Fernanda Gabriela Teixeira et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. V. Oppermann, P. Weidlich, and M. L. Musskopf, “Periodontal disease and systemic complications,” Brazilian Oral Research, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 39–47, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. N. Suzuki, M. Yoneda, and T. Hirofuji, “Mixed red-complex bacterial infection in periodontitis,” International Journal of Dentistry, vol. 2013, Article ID 587279, 6 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. Mo, M. You, Y. C. Su et al., “Multilocus sequence analysis of Treponema denticola strains of diverse origin,” BMC Microbiology, vol. 13, no. 1, article 24, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. M. Costa, M. C. M. Guimarães, E. R. de Souza, O. T. Nóbrega, and A. C. B. Bezerra, “Interleukin-6 (G-174C) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (G-308A) gene polymorphisms in geriatric patients with chronic periodontitis,” Gerodontology, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 70–75, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. M. Archana, A. Arif Salman, T. S. S. Kumar, P. K. Saraswathi, K. H. Panishankar, and P. Kumarasamy, “Association between interleukin-1 gene polymorphism and severity of chronic periodontitis in a south Indian population group,” Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 174–178, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. Stabholz, W. A. Soskolne, and L. Shapira, “Genetic and environmental risk factors for chronic periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis,” Periodontology 2000, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 138–153, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. N. A. Chrysanthakopoulos, “Periodontal disease status in an isolated greek adult population,” Journal of Dentistry, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 195–206, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  8. J. B. César Neto, E. F. Rosa, C. M. Pannuti, and G. A. Romito, “Smoking and periodontal tissues: a review,” Brazilian Oral Research, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 25–31, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. V. Esfahanian and M. S. Shamami, “Relationship between osteoporosis and periodontal disease: review of the literature,” Journal of Dentistry (Tehran), vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 256–264, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  10. G. P. Garlet, A. P. Trombone, R. Menezes et al., “The use of chronic gingivitis as reference status increases the power and odds of periodontitis genetic studies: a proposal based in the exposure concept and clearer resistance and susceptibility phenotypes definition,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 323–332, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. Zhang, X. Sun, L. Xiao, C. Xie, D. Xuan, and G. Luo, “Gene polymorphisms and periodontitis,” Periodontology 2000, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 102–124, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. L. Laine, W. Crielaard, and B. G. Loos, “Genetic susceptibility to periodontitis,” Periodontology 2000, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 37–68, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. N. B. Kalburgi, A. Bhatia, S. Bilichodmath, S. R. Patil, S. B. Mangalekar, and K. Bhat, “Interleukin-6 promoter polymorphism (−174 G/C) in Indian patients with chronic periodontitis,” Journal of oral science, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 431–437, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. L. Nibali, N. Donos, S. Farrell et al., “Association between interleukin-6 -174 polymorphism and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in chronic periodontitis,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 81, no. 12, pp. 1814–1819, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. L. Nibali, I. Madden, F. F. Chillida, L. J. A. Heitz-Mayfield, P. M. Brett, and N. Donos, “IL6-174 genotype associated with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Indians,” Oral Diseases, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 232–237, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. C. Trindade, T. Olczak, I. S. Gomes-Filho et al., “Porphyromonas gingivalis hmuy-induced production of interleukin-6 and il-6 polymorphism in chronic periodontitis,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 84, no. 5, pp. 650–655, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. G. C. Armitage, “Development of a classification system for periodontal diseases and conditions,” Annals of Periodontology, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Y. B. Saab, W. Kabbara, C. Chbib, and P. R. Gard, “Buccal cell DNA extraction: yield, purity, and cost: a comparison of two methods,” Genetic Testing, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 413–416, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. Rust, H. Funke, and G. Assmann, “Mutagenically separated PCR (MS-PCR): a highly specific one step procedure for easy mutation detection,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 21, no. 16, pp. 3623–3629, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. H. Schotte, B. Schlüter, S. Rust, G. Assmann, W. Domschke, and M. Gaubitz, “Interleukin-6 promoter polymorphism (−174 G/C) in Caucasian German patients with systemic lupus erythematosus,” Rheumatology, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 393–400, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. N. Haas, M. C. Wagner, R. V. Oppermann, C. K. Rösing, J. M. Albandar, and C. Susin, “Risk factors for the progression of periodontal attachment loss: a 5-year population-based study in South Brazil,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 215–223, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. P. N. Papapanou, J. L. Wennstrom, and K. Grondahl, “A 10-year retrospective study of periodontal disease progression,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 403–411, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. M. Albandar, “Some predictors of radiographic alveolar bone height reduction over 6 years,” Journal of Periodontal Research, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 186–192, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. B. A. Burt, A. I. Ismail, E. C. Morrison, and E. D. Beltran, “Risk factors for tooth loss over a 28-year period,” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 69, no. 5, pp. 1126–1130, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. I. Ismail, E. C. Morrison, B. A. Burt, R. G. Caffesse, and M. T. Kavanagh, “Natural history of periodontal disease in adults: findings from the Tecumseh Periodontal Disease Study, 1959–87,” Journal of dental research, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 430–435, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. D. Locker, G. D. Slade, and H. Murray, “Epidemiology of periodontal disease among older adults: a review,” Periodontology 2000, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 16–33, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. B. A. Burt, “Periodontitis and aging: reviewing recent evidence,” The Journal of the American Dental Association, vol. 125, no. 3, pp. 273–279, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. A. Ship and J. D. Beck, “Ten-year longitudinal study of periodontal attachment loss in healthy adults,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 281–290, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. M. Albandar, “Global risk factors and risk indicators for periodontal diseases,” Periodontology 2000, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 177–206, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. W. M. Thomson, D. M. Shearer, J. M. Broadbent, L. A. Foster Page, and R. Poulton, “The natural history of periodontal attachment loss during the third and fourth decades of life,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 672–680, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. L. Neely, T. R. Holford, H. Löe, Å. Ånerud, and H. Boysen, “The natural history of periodontal disease in man. Risk factors for progression of attachment loss in individuals receiving no oral health care,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 72, no. 8, pp. 1006–1015, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. L. N. Borrell, B. A. Burt, R. C. Warren, and H. W. Neighbors, “The role of individual and neighborhood social factors on periodontitis: the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 444–453, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. D. Gätke, B. Holtfreter, R. Biffar, and T. Kocher, “Five-year change of periodontal diseases in the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP),” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 357–367, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. Buchwald, T. Kocher, R. Biffar, A. Harb, B. Holtfreter, and P. Meisel, “Tooth loss and periodontitis by socio-economic status and inflammation in a longitudinal population-based study,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 203–211, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. E. Könönen, S. Paju, P. J. Pussinen et al., “Population-based study of salivary carriage of periodontal pathogens in adults,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 2446–2451, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. S. Offenbacher, S. P. Barros, and J. D. Beck, “Rethinking periodontal inflammation,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 79, no. 8, pp. 1577–1584, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. E. Newbrun, “Indices to measure gingival bleeding,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 555–561, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. H. P. Müller and A. Heinecke, “The influence of gingival dimensions on bleeding upon probing in young adults with plaque-induced gingivitis,” Clinical Oral Investigation, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 69–74, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. P. M. Brett, P. Zygogianni, G. S. Griffiths et al., “Functional gene polymorphisms in aggressive and chronic periodontitis,” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 84, no. 12, pp. 1149–1153, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. L. Scapoli, A. Girardi, A. Palmieri et al., “IL6 and IL10 are genetic susceptibility factors of periodontal disease,” Dental Research Journal, vol. 9, supplement 2, pp. 197–201, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  41. P. C. Trevilatto, R. M. Scarel-Caminaga, R. B. de Brito Jr., A. P. de Souza, and S. R. Line, “Polymorphism at position -174 of IL-6 gene is associated with susceptibility to chronic periodontitis in a Caucasian Brazilian population,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 438–442, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  42. F. Franch-Chillida, L. Nibali, I. Madden, N. Donos, and P. Brett, “Association between interleukin-6 polymorphisms and periodontitis in Indian non-smokers,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 137–144, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. N. Babel, G. Cherepnev, D. Babel et al., “Analysis of tumor necrosis factor-α, transforming growth factor-β, interleukin-10, IL-6, and interferon-γ gene polymorphisms in patients with chronic periodontitis,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 77, no. 12, pp. 1978–1983, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. W. H. Fan, D. L. Liu, L. M. Xiao, C. J. Xie, S. Y. Sun, and J. C. Zhang, “Coronary heart disease and chronic periodontitis: is polymorphism of interleukin-6 gene the common risk factor in a Chinese population?” Oral Diseases, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 270–276, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. L. I. Holla, A. Fassmann, A. Stejskalová, V. Znojil, J. Vanček, and J. Vacha, “Analysis of the interleukin-6 gene promoter polymorphisms in Czech patients with chronic periodontitis,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 30–36, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. W. T. Y. Loo, C.-B. Fan, L.-J. Bai et al., “Gene polymorphism and protein of human pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in Chinese healthy subjects and chronic periodontitis patients,” Journal of Translational Medicine, vol. 10, article S8, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J. C. Wohlfahrt, T. Wu, J. S. Hodges, J. E. Hinrichs, and B. S. Michalowicz, “No association between selected candidate gene polymorphisms and severe chronic periodontitis,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 426–436, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. L. Laine, B. G. Loos, and W. Crielaard, “Gene polymorphisms in chronic periodontitis,” International Journal of Dentistry, vol. 2010, Article ID 324719, 22 pages, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. A. Balcerzyk, M. Nowak, I. Kopyta et al., “Impact of the -174G/C interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene polymorphism on the risk of paediatric ischemic stroke, itssymptoms and outcome,” Folia Neuropathologica, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 147–151, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. M. Sharma, I. Bairy, K. Pai et al., “Salivary IL-6 levels in oral leukoplakia with dysplasia and its clinical relevance to tobacco habits and periodontitis,” Clinical Oral Investigations, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 705–714, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. A. J. P. Smith, F. D'Aiuto, J. Palmen et al., “Association of serum interleukin-6 concentration with a functional IL6 -6331T>C polymorphism,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 841–850, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. D. C. Badiu, V. Paunescu, A. Aungurenci, and D. Pasarica, “Proinflammatory cytokines in peritonitis,” Journal of Medicine and Life, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 158–162, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus