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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2005, Issue 2, Pages 118-120

Peptidoglycan and Bacterial DNA Induce Inflammation and Coagulation Markers in Synergy

1Clarigen Inc, 5922 Farnsworth Court, Carlsbad, CA 92008, USA
2Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Veterinary Medical Research Institute, 1143 Budapest, Hungaria krt 21, Hungary

Received 30 November 2004; Accepted 15 December 2004

Copyright © 2005 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Bacterial compounds signal the presence of foreign pathogens in the innate immune system. These microbial components are key players in infectious diseases and implicate toll-like receptors in the activation of inflammation and coagulation. Nevertheless, the existence of a synergistic relationship between peptidoglycan and bacterial DNA on these two physiological responses has not been investigated. The present study reports new findings on the regulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha and tissue factor in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by peptidoglycan and bacterial DNA. These were found to induce tumor necrosis factor alpha and tissue factor simultaneously and in a synergistic manner. These findings provide a new proinflammatory and procoagulant mechanism likely to play a role in sepsis pathogenesis.