Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2006, Article ID 90123, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/MI/2006/90123
Research Communication

Spatiotemporal Pattern of Neuroinflammation After Impact-Acceleration Closed Head Injury in the Rat

1Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Antwerp, Edegem 2650, Belgium
2Department of Neurology, Heinrich-Heine University, Düsseldorf 40225, Germany
3Department of Life Sciences, Janssen Research Foundation, Beerse 2340, Belgium
4Julius-Maximilians University, Heinrich-Heine University, Würzburg 97080, Belgium
5Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Antwerp, Edegem 2650, Belgium

Received 21 September 2005; Accepted 20 October 2005

Copyright © 2006 Servan Rooker et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R Bullock, R M Chesnut, G Clifton et al., “Guidelines for the management of severe head injury. Brain Trauma Foundation,” European Journal of Emergency Medicine, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 109–127, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. R K Narayan, M E Michel, B Ansell et al., “Clinical trials in head injury,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 503–557, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. F C Barone and G Z Feuerstein, “Inflammatory mediators and stroke: new opportunities for novel therapeutics,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 819–834, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  4. C Gillen, S Jander, and G Stoll, “Sequential expression of mRNA for proinflammatory cytokines and interleukin-10 in the rat peripheral nervous system: comparison between immune-mediated demyelination and Wallerian degeneration,” Journal of Neuroscience Research, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 489–496, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. G Stoll, S Jander, and M Schroeter, “Inflammation and glial responses in ischemic brain lesions,” Progress in Neurobiology, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 149–171, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. K I Arai, F Lee, A Miyajima, S Miyatake, N Arai, and T Yokota, “Cytokines: coordinators of immune and inflammatory responses,” Annual Review of Biochemistry, vol. 59, pp. 783–836, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. R J Hariri, V A Chang, P S Barie, R S Wang, S F Sharif, and J BG Ghajar, “Traumatic injury induces interleukin-6 production by human astrocytes,” Brain Research, vol. 636, no. 1, pp. 139–142, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. J E Merrill and E N Benveniste, “Cytokines in inflammatory brain lesions: helpful and harmful,” Trends in Neurosciences, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 331–338, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. E Shohami, R Bass, D Wallach, A Yamin, and R Gallily, “Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) activity in rat brain is associated with cerebroprotection after closed head injury,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 378–384, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  10. S Toulmond and N J Rothwell, “Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist inhibits neuronal damage caused by fluid percussion injury in the rat,” Brain Research, vol. 671, no. 2, pp. 261–266, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. S J Hewett, C A Csernansky, and D W Choi, “Selective potentiation of NMDA-induced neuronal injury following induction of astrocytic iNOS,” Neuron, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 487–494, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. S Jander, M Schroeter, O Peters, O W Witte, and G Stoll, “Cortical spreading depression induces proinflammatory cytokine gene expression in the rat brain,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 218–225, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  13. K Engelborghs, J Verlooy, B Van Deuren, J Van Reempts, and M Borgers, “Intracranial pressure in a modified experimental model of closed head injury,” Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement, vol. 70, pp. 123–125, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  14. K Engelborghs, J Verlooy, J Van Reempts, B Van Deuren, M Van de Ven, and M Borgers, “Temporal changes in intracranial pressure in a modified experimental model of closed head injury,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 89, no. 5, pp. 796–806, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  15. G De Mulder, K Van Rossem, J Van Reempts, M Borgers, and J Verlooy, “Validation of a closed head injury model for use in long-term studies,” Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement, vol. 76, pp. 409–413, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  16. S Rooker, G De Visscher, B Van Deuren et al., “Comparison of intracranial pressure measured in the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum of the rat,” Journal of Neuroscience Methods, vol. 119, no. 1, pp. 83–88, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. K Engelborghs, M Haseldonckx, J Van Reempts et al., “Impaired autoregulation of cerebral blood flow in an experimental model of traumatic brain injury,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 667–677, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. K van Rossem, S Garcia-Martinez, G De Mulder et al., “Brain oxygenation after experimental closed head injury. A NIRS study,” Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 471, pp. 209–215, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  19. K van Rossem, S Garcia-Martinez, L Wouters et al., “Cytochrome oxidase redox state in brain is more sensitive to hypoxia after closed head injury: a near- infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) study,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, vol. 19, no. suppl 1, p. S391, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  20. S Jander and G Stoll, “Differential induction of interleukin-12, interleukin-18, and interleukin-1β converting enzyme mRNA in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis of the Lewis rat,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 91, no. 1-2, pp. 93–99, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. S Jander, M Schroeter, and G Stoll, “Role of NMDA receptor signaling in the regulation of inflammatory gene expression after focal brain ischemia,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 109, no. 2, pp. 181–187, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. S Jander, M Schroeter, and G Stoll, “Interleukin-18 expression after focal ischemia of the rat brain: association with the late-stage inflammatory response,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 62–70, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  23. L Fan, P R Young, F C Barone, G Z Feuerstein, D H Smith, and T K McIntosh, “Experimental brain injury induces expression of interleukin-1 β mRNA in the rat brain,” Molecular Brain Research, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 125–130, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. L Fan, P R Young, F C Barone, G Z Feuerstein, D H Smith, and T K McIntosh, “Experimental brain injury induces differential expression of tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA in the CNS,” Molecular Brain Research, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 287–291, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. E Shohami, M Novikov, R Bass, A Yamin, and R Gallily, “Closed head injury triggers early production of TNF α and IL-6 by brain tissue,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 615–619, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  26. V Taupin, S Toulmond, A Serrano, J Benavides, and F Zavala, “Increase in IL-6, IL-1 and TNF levels in rat brain following traumatic lesion. Influence of pre- and post-traumatic treatment with Ro5 4864, a peripheral-type (p site) benzodiazepine ligand,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 177–185, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. M N Woodroofe, G S Sarna, M Wadhwa et al., “Detection of interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 in adult rat brain, following mechanical injury, by in vivo microdialysis: evidence of a role for microglia in cytokine production,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 227–236, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. H Q Yan, M A Banos, P Herregodts, R Hooghe, and E L Hooghe-Peters, “Expression of interleukin (IL)-1 β, IL-6 and their respective receptors in the normal rat brain and after injury,” European Journal of Immunology, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 2963–2971, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  29. C A Davies, S A Loddick, S Toulmond, R P Stroemer, J Hunt, and N J Rothwell, “The progression and topographic distribution of interleukin-1β expression after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 87–98, 1999. View at Google Scholar