Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2007, Article ID 30987, 4 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2007/30987
Research Article

Antimicrobial Activity Does Not Predict Cytokine Response to Adrenomedullin or Its Shortened Derivatives

1Institute of Dentistry, Queen Mary, University of London, Newark Street, London E1 2AT, UK
2Department of Asthma, Allergy and Respiratory Science, Kings College London, 5th Floor, Thomas Guy House, Guy's Hospital, London SE1 9RT, UK

Received 18 June 2007; Revised 9 July 2007; Accepted 5 September 2007

Copyright © 2007 Quratul Ann Hussain et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. P. Hinson, S. Kapas, and D. M. Smith, “Adrenomedullin, a multifunctional regulatory peptide,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 138–167, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. R. P. Allaker, C. Zihni, and S. Kapas, “An investigation into the antimicrobial effects of adrenomedullin on members of the skin, oral, respiratory tract and gut microflora,” FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 289–293, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. R. P. Allaker, P. W. Grosvenor, and D. C. McAnerney et al., “Mechanisms of adrenomedullin antimicrobial action,” Peptides, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 661–666, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  4. S. Kapas, A. Bansal, and V. Bhargava et al., “Adrenomedullin expression in pathogen-challenged oral epithelial cells,” Peptides, vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 1485–1489, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. H. Tilg, C. A. Dinarello, and J. W. Mier, “IL-6 and APPs: anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive mediators,” Immunology Today, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 428–432, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. L. Y. F. Wong, B. M. Y. Cheung, Y.-Y. Li, and F. Tang, “Adrenomedullin is both proinflammatory and antiinflammatory: its effects on gene expression and secretion of cytokines and macrophage migration inhibitory factor in NR8383 macrophage cell line,” Endocrinology, vol. 146, no. 3, pp. 1321–1327, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  7. M. Murakami, B. Lopez-Garcia, M. Braff, R. A. Dorschner, and R. L. Gallo, “Postsecretory processing generates multiple cathelicidins for enhanced topical antimicrobial defense,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 172, no. 5, pp. 3070–3077, 2004.
  8. Z. Wu, D. M. Hoover, and D. Yang et al., “Engineering disulfide bridges to dissect antimicrobial and chemotactic activities of human β-defensin 3,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 100, no. 15, pp. 8880–8885, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  9. W. Chamulitrat, R. Schmidt, and P. Tomakidi et al., “Association of gp91phox homolog Nox1 with anchorage-independent growth and MAP kinase-activation of transformed human keratinocytes,” Oncogene, vol. 22, no. 38, pp. 6045–6053, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  10. S. Kondo, “The roles of keratinocyte-derived cytokines in the epidermis and their possible responses to UVA-irradiation,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology Symposium Proceedings, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 177–183, 1999.
  11. D. A. Young, C. H. Evans, and T. J. Smith, “Leukoregulin induction of protein expression in human orbital fibroblasts: evidence for anatomical site-restricted cytokine-target cell interactions,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 95, no. 15, pp. 8904–8909, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. O. Pleguezuelos, E. Hagi-Pavli, G. Crowther, and S. Kapas, “Adrenomedullin signals through NF-κB in epithelial cells,” FEBS Letters, vol. 577, no. 1-2, pp. 249–254, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  13. Y. Isumi, N. Minamino, and A. Kubo et al., “Adrenomedullin stimulates interleukin-6 production in Swiss 3T3 cells,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 244, no. 2, pp. 325–331, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  14. L. K. Lewis, M. W. Smith, S. O. Brennan, T. G. Yandle, A. M. Richards, and M. G. Nicholls, “Degradation of human adrenomedullin (1-52) by plasma membrane enzymes and identification of metabolites,” Peptides, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 733–739, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. A. Martínez, H.-R. Oh, and E. J. Unsworth et al., “Matrix metalloproteinase-2 cleavage of adrenomedullin produces a vasoconstrictor out of a vasodilator,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 383, no. 3, pp. 413–418, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed