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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2007, Article ID 45673, 10 pages
Research Article

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Flavonoids: Genistein, Kaempferol, Quercetin, and Daidzein Inhibit STAT-1 and NF-κB Activations, Whereas Flavone, Isorhamnetin, Naringenin, and Pelargonidin Inhibit only NF-κB Activation along with Their Inhibitory Effect on iNOS Expression and NO Production in Activated Macrophages

1The Immunopharmacology Research Group, University of Tampere, Medical School and Tampere University Hospital, Research Unit, Tampere 33014, Finland
2Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacy, Åbo Akademi University, Turku 20520, Finland
3Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014, Finland

Received 18 December 2006; Revised 16 March 2007; Accepted 26 April 2007

Copyright © 2007 Mari Hämäläinen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In inflammation, bacterial products and proinflammatory cytokines induce the formation of large amounts of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and compounds that inhibit NO production have anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we systematically investigated the effects of 36 naturally occurring flavonoids and related compounds on NO production in macrophages exposed to an inflammatory stimulus (lipopolysaccharide, LPS), and evaluated the mechanisms of action of the effective compounds. Flavone, the isoflavones daidzein and genistein, the flavonols isorhamnetin, kaempferol and quercetin, the flavanone naringenin, and the anthocyanin pelargonidin inhibited iNOS protein and mRNA expression and also NO production in a dose-dependent manner. All eight active compounds inhibited the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which is a significant transcription factor for iNOS. Genistein, kaempferol, quercetin, and daidzein also inhibited the activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT-1), another important transcription factor for iNOS. The present study characterises the effects and mechanisms of naturally occurring phenolic compounds on iNOS expression and NO production in activated macrophages. The results partially explain the pharmacological efficacy of flavonoids as anti-inflammatory compounds.