Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2008, Article ID 106507, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2008/106507
Review Article

Apocynin: Molecular Aptitudes

Department of Immunopathology, Medical University of Lodz, 251 Pomorska Street, Building C5, 92-213 Lodz, Poland

Received 6 June 2008; Accepted 10 September 2008

Academic Editor: Fulvio D'Acquisto

Copyright © 2008 J. Stefanska and R. Pawliczak. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Citations to this Article [173 citations]

The following is the list of published articles that have cited the current article.

  • Kimberly A. Kelly, Xinlan Li, Zhenjun Tan, Reyna L. VanGilder, Charles L. Rosen, and Jason D. Huber, “NOX2 inhibition with apocynin worsens stroke outcome in aged rats,” Brain Research, vol. 1292, pp. 165–172, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Marcos Taveira, Paula Guedes de Pinho, Rui F. Gonçalves, Paula B. Andrade, and Patrícia Valentão, “Determination of eighty-one volatile organic compounds in dietary Rumex induratus leaves by GC/IT-MS, using different extractive techniques,” Microchemical Journal, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 67–72, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sainath Babu, Achuthan C. Raghavamenon, Frank R. Fronczek, and Rao M. Uppu, “4-Hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-nitroacetophenone (5-nitroapocynin),” Acta Crystallographica Section E-Structure Reports Online, vol. 65, pp. O2292–U3249, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Michael H. Abraham, Robert E. Smith, Ron Luchtefeld, Aaron J. Boorem, Rensheng Luo, and William E. Acree, “Prediction of solubility of drugs and other compounds in organic solvents,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 1500–1515, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Stefania Schiavone, Silvia Sorce, Michel Dubois-Dauphin, Vincent Jaquet, Marilena Colaianna, Margherita Zotti, Vincenzo Cuomo, Luigia Trabace, and Karl-Heinz Krause, “Involvement of NOX2 in the Development of Behavioral and Pathologic Alterations in Isolated Rats,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 384–392, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Laura L. Dugan, Sameh S. Ali, Grigoriy Shekhtman, Amanda J. Roberts, Jacinta Lucero, Kevin L. Quick, and M. Margarita Behrens, “IL-6 Mediated Degeneration of Forebrain GABAergic Interneurons and Cognitive Impairment in Aged Mice through Activation of Neuronal NADPH Oxidase,” Plos One, vol. 4, no. 5, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Gab Seok Kim, Joo Eun Jung, Kuniyasu Niizuma, and Pak H. Chan, “CK2 Is a Novel Negative Regulator of NADPH Oxidase and a Neuroprotectant in Mice after Cerebral Ischemia,” Journal Of Neuroscience, vol. 29, no. 47, pp. 14779–14789, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Vincent Jaquet, Leonardo Scapozza, Robert A. Clark, Karl-Heinz Krause, and J. David Lambeth, “Small-Molecule NOX Inhibitors: ROS-Generating NADPH Oxidases as Therapeutic Targets,” Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 2535–2552, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Rachel Williams, Honghong Yao, Fuwang Peng, Yanjing Yang, Crystal Bethel-Brown, and Shilpa Buch, “Cooperative induction of CXCL10 involves NADPH oxidase: Implications for HIV dementia,” Glia, pp. NA–NA, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • P.D. Maldonado, E. Molina-Jijón, J. Villeda-Hernández, S. Galván-Arzate, A. Santamaría, and J. Pedraza-Chaverrí, “NAD(P)H oxidase contributes to neurotoxicity in an excitotoxic/prooxidant model of Huntington's disease in rats: Protective role of apocynin,” Journal of Neuroscience Research, pp. NA–NA, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jamel El-Benna, Pham My-Chan Dang, and Axel Périanin, “Peptide-based inhibitors of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 80, no. 6, pp. 778–785, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jing-Li Tang, Wei-Ping Chen, Yan Xiong, Peng-Fei Hu, and Li-Dong Wu, “withdrawn The anti-inflammatory effects of apocynin, inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, contrasting hyaluronic acid on articular cartilage during the development of osteoarthritis in a rabbit model,” Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Lidyane Regina Gomes Castor, Katia Andreza Locatelli, and Valdecir Farias Ximenes, “Pro-oxidant activity of apocynin radical,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 48, no. 12, pp. 1636–1643, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Weijing Cai, Massimo Torreggiani, Li Zhu, Xue Chen, John Cijiang He, Gary E. Striker, and Helen Vlassara, “AGER1 regulates endothelial cell NADPH oxidase-dependent oxidant stress via PKC-δ: Implications for vascular disease,” American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology, vol. 298, no. 3, pp. C624–C634, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Kumi Y. Inoue, Kosuke Ino, Hitoshi Shiku, Shigenobu Kasai, Tomoyuki Yasukawa, Fumio Mizutani, and Tomokazu Matsue, “Electrochemical monitoring of hydrogen peroxide released from leucocytes on horseradish peroxidase redox polymer coated electrode chip,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 1723–1728, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Dong Kug Choi, Sushruta Koppula, Mijung Choi, and Kyoungho Suk, “Recent developments in the inhibitors of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration: inflammatory oxidative enzymes as a drug target,” Expert Opinion On Therapeutic Patents, vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 1531–1546, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Rifat Sabuhi, Mohammad Asghar, and Tahir Hussain, “Inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase potentiates AT2 receptor agonist-induced natriuresis in Sprague-Dawley rats,” American Journal Of Physiology-Renal Physiology, vol. 299, no. 4, pp. F815–F820, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ludovic Donaghy, Hyun-Ki Hong, Christophe Lambert, Heung-Sik Park, Won Joon Shim, and Kwang-Sik Choi, “First characterisation of the populations and immune-related activities of hemocytes from two edible gastropod species, the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus and the spiny top shell, Turbo cornutus,” Fish & Shellfish Immunology, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 87–97, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Magali Dumont, and M. Flint Beal, “Neuroprotective strategies involving ROS in Alzheimer disease,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 1014–1026, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Wakako Takabe, Nelson Jen, Lisong Ai, Ryan Hamilton, Sky Wang, Kristin Holmes, Farhad Dharbandi, Bhavraj Khalsa, Steven Bressler, Mark L. Barr, Rongsong Li, and Tzung K. Hsiai, “ Oscillatory Shear Stress Induces Mitochondrial Superoxide Production: Implication of NADPH Oxidase and c-Jun NH 2 -Terminal Kinase Signaling ,” Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 1379–1388, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Birgit Mertens, Mustafa Varcin, Yvette Michotte, and Sophie Sarre, “The neuroprotective action of candesartan is related to interference with the early stages of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced dopaminergic cell death,” European Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 1141–1148, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Chi-Huei Chiang, Chiao-Hui Chuang, Shiou-Ling Liu, Tzong-Shyuan Lee, Yu Ru Kou, and Haibo Zhang, “Apocynin attenuates ventilator-induced lung injury in an isolated and perfused rat lung model,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 1360–1367, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Chi-Huei Chiang, Chiao-Hui Chuang, and Shiou-Ling Liu, “Apocynin attenuates ischemia-reperfusion lung injury in an isolated and perfused rat lung model,” Translational Research, vol. 158, no. 1, pp. 17–29, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Giovanni Gambaro, Manuel P. Ferraro, and Alessandro D'Addessi, “Ayurvedic medicine and NADPH oxidase: a possible approach to the prevention of ESRD in hyperoxaluria,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 1759–1761, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ana Carolina de Almeida, Otavio Cabral Marques, Christina Arslanian, Antonio Condino-Neto, and Valdecir F. Ximenes, “4-Fluoro-2-methoxyphenol, an apocynin analog with enhanced inhibitory effect on leukocyte oxidant production and phagocytosis,” European Journal Of Pharmacology, vol. 660, no. 2-3, pp. 445–453, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Saima Muzaffar, Nilima Shukla, Yolanda Massey, Gianni D. Angelini, and Jamie Y. Jeremy, “NADPH oxidase 1 mediates upregulation of thromboxane A2 synthase in human vascular smooth muscle cells: Inhibition with iloprost,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 658, no. 2-3, pp. 187–192, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Magali Dumont, Cliona Stack, Ceyhan Elipenhali, Noel Y. Calingasan, Elizabeth Wille, and M. Flint Beal, “Apocynin administration does not improve behavioral and neuropathological deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 492, no. 3, pp. 150–154, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Daniela Viackova, Michaela Pekarova, Tomas Crhak, Martina Bucsaiova, Jan Matiasovic, Antonin Lojek, and Lukas Kubala, “Redox-sensitive regulation of macrophage-inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in vitro does not correlate with the failure of apocynin to prevent lung inflammation induced by endotoxin,” Immunobiology, vol. 216, no. 4, pp. 457–465, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Eric Raddatz, Anne-Catherine Thomas, Alexandre Sarre, and Messod Benathan, “Differential contribution of mitochondria, NADPH oxidases, and glycolysis to region-specific oxidant stress in the anoxic-reoxygenated embryonic heart,” American Journal Of Physiology-Heart And Circulatory Physiology, vol. 300, no. 3, pp. H820–H835, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Marwa Al-Sabbagh, Luca Fusi, Jenny Higham, Yun Lee, Kaiyu Lei, Aylin C. Hanyaloglu, Eric W. -F. Lam, Mark Christian, and Jan J. Brosens, “NADPH Oxidase-Derived Reactive Oxygen Species Mediate Decidualization of Human Endometrial Stromal Cells in Response to Cyclic AMP Signaling,” Endocrinology, vol. 152, no. 2, pp. 730–740, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Tiziana Genovese, Emanuela Mazzon, Irene Paterniti, Emanuela Esposito, Placido Bramanti, and Salvatore Cuzzocrea, “Modulation of NADPH oxidase activation in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats,” Brain Research, vol. 1372, pp. 92–102, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Elizaveta Vladychenskaya, Olga Tyulina, Shiro Urano, and Alexander Boldyrev, “Rat lymphocytes express NMDA receptors that take part in regulation of cytokine production,” Cell Biochemistry And Function, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 527–533, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Richard Gordon, Colleen E. Hogan, Matthew L. Neal, Vellareddy Anantharam, Anumantha G. Kanthasamy, and Arthi Kanthasamy, “A simple magnetic separation method for high-yield isolation of pure primary microglia,” Journal of Neuroscience Methods, vol. 194, no. 2, pp. 287–296, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Judith Eschbach, Anissa Fergani, Hugues Oudart, Jean-Patrice Robin, Frederique Rene, Jose-Luis Gonzalez de Aguilar, Yves Larmet, Joffrey Zoll, Majid Hafezparast, Birgit Schwalenstocker, Jean-Philippe Loeffler, Albert C. Ludolph, and Luc Dupuis, “Mutations in cytoplasmic dynein lead to a Huntington's disease-like defect in energy metabolism of brown and white adipose tissues,” Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta-Molecular Basis Of Disease, vol. 1812, no. 1, pp. 59–69, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Katarzyna Winiarska, Michal Grabowski, and Maciej K. Rogacki, “Inhibition of renal gluconeogenesis contributes to hypoglycaemic action of NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin,” Chemico-Biological Interactions, vol. 189, no. 1-2, pp. 119–126, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • T. F. Almeida, L. C. Palma, L. C. Mendez, A. A. Noronha-Dutra, and P. S. T. Veras, “ Leishmania amazonensis fails to induce the release of reactive oxygen intermediates by CBA macrophages ,” Parasite Immunology, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 492–498, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Chih-Feng Chian, Chi-Huei Chiang, Chu Yuan-Jung, Chiao-Hui Chuang, Shiou-Ling Liu, Jheng Yi-Han, Haibo Zhang, and Jay H. Ryu, “Apocynin Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Lung Injury in an Isolated and Perfused Rat Lung Model,” Shock, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 196–202, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Paulina Kleniewska, Aleksandra Piechota, Beata Skibska, and Anna Goraca, “The NADPH Oxidase Family and its Inhibitors,” Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 277–294, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Silvia Sorce, Karl-Heinz Krause, and Vincent Jaquet, “Targeting NOX enzymes in the central nervous system: therapeutic opportunities,” Cellular And Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 69, no. 14, pp. 2387–2407, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Masao Yamasaki, Masahiro Iwase, Kazuo Kawano, Yoichi Sakakibara, Masahito Suiko, and Kazuo Nishiyama, “Selective Inhibition by Apocynin of the Proliferation and Adhesion to Fibronectin of v-H-ras-Transformed 3Y1 Cells,” Bioscience Biotechnology And Biochemistry, vol. 76, no. 6, pp. 1177–1181, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jamel El-Benna, Pham My-Chan Dang, and Axel Périanin, “Towards specific NADPH oxidase inhibition by small synthetic peptides,” Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 69, no. 14, pp. 2307–2314, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Nicola J. Cumley, Leanne M. Smith, Mark Anthony, and Robin C. May, “The CovS/CovR Acid Response Regulator Is Required for Intracellular Survival of Group B Streptococcus in Macrophages,” Infection And Immunity, vol. 80, no. 5, pp. 1650–1661, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Lígia Santos Pedroso, Giovani Marino Fávero, Luciana Erzinger Alves de Camargo, Rubiana Mara Mainardes, and Najeh Maissar Khalil, “Effect of the o-methyl catechols apocynin, curcumin and vanillin on the cytotoxicity activity of tamoxifen,” Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry, pp. 1–7, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Kenneth R. Houser, David K. Johnson, and Faoud T. Ishmael, “Anti-inflammatory effects of methoxyphenolic compounds on human airway cells,” Journal Of Inflammation-London, vol. 9, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mirko Magnone, Laura Sturla, Emanuela Jacchetti, Sonia Scarfi, Santina Bruzzone, Cesare Usai, Lucrezia Guida, Annalisa Salis, Gianluca Damonte, Antonio De Flora, and Elena Zocchi, “Autocrine abscisic acid plays a key role in quartz-induced macrophage activation,” Faseb Journal, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 1261–1271, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Nicola Ngiam, and Brian P. Kavanagh, “Ventilator-induced lung injury,” Current Opinion in Critical Care, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 16–22, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Maria Cecilia Castro, Flavio Francini, Guillermo Schinella, Claudia Ines Caldiz, Maria Guillermina Zubiria, Juan Jose Gagliardino, and Maria Laura Massa, “Apocynin administration prevents the changes induced by a fructose-rich diet on rat liver metabolism and the antioxidant system,” Clinical Science, vol. 123, no. 11-12, pp. 681–692, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Pedro Barcellos-de-Souza, Cláudio Canetti, Christina Barja-Fidalgo, and Maria Augusta Arruda, “Leukotriene B4 inhibits neutrophil apoptosis via NADPH oxidase activity: Redox control of NF-κB pathway and mitochondrial stability,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research, vol. 1823, no. 10, pp. 1990–1997, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Vidhi P. Shah, Hesum A. Chegini, Susan R. Vishneski, Ross V. Weatherman, Peter F. Blackmore, and Yuliya Dobrydneva, “Tamoxifen promotes superoxide production in platelets by activation of PI3-Kinase and NADPH oxidase pathways,” Thrombosis Research, vol. 129, no. 1, pp. 36–42, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Barry J. Connell, and Tarek M. Saleh, “Co-administration of apocynin with lipoic acid enhances neuroprotection in a rat model of ischemia/reperfusion,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 507, no. 1, pp. 43–46, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Kari A. Trumbull, Donna McAllister, Mandi M. Gandelman, Whitney Y. Fung, Thomas Lew, Lucy Brennan, Nathan Lopez, Jeff Morre, Balaraman Kalyanaraman, and Joseph S. Beckman, “Diapocynin and apocynin administration fails to significantly extend survival in G93A SOD1 ALS mice,” Neurobiology Of Disease, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 137–144, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Nushjira Pongnimitprasert, Margarita Hurtado, Foudil Lamari, Jamel El Benna, Corinne Dupuy, Michèle Fay, Marie-José Foglietti, Maguy Bernard, Marie-Anne Gougerot-Pocidalo, and Françoise Braut-Boucher, “Implication of NADPH Oxidases in the Early Inflammation Process Generated by Cystic Fibrosis Cells,” ISRN Inflammation, vol. 2012, pp. 1–11, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Luis A. Videla, Pamela Cornejo, Pamela Romanque, Catherine Santibáñez, Iván Castillo, and Romina Vargas, “Thyroid Hormone-Induced Cytosol-to-Nuclear Translocation of Rat Liver Nrf2 Is Dependent on Kupffer Cell Functioning,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2012, pp. 1–10, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • José E. Galgani, Bárbara Núñez, and Luis A. Videla, “Vanillin suppresses Kupffer cell-related colloidal carbon-induced respiratory burst activity in isolated perfused rat liver: anti-inflammatory implications,” Food & Function, vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 1319, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jeff S. Kruk, Maryam S. Vasefi, John J. Heikkila, and Michael A. Beazely, “Reactive Oxygen Species Are Required for 5-HT-Induced Transactivation of Neuronal Platelet-Derived Growth Factor and TrkB Receptors, but Not for ERK1/2 Activation,” Plos One, vol. 8, no. 9, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Y. Du, A. Veenstra, K. Palczewski, and T. S. Kern, “Photoreceptor cells are major contributors to diabetes-induced oxidative stress and local inflammation in the retina,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 110, no. 41, pp. 16586–16591, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Martha Edith Macías‑Pérez, Federico Martínez‑Ramos, Itzia Irene Padilla‑Martínez, José Correa‑Basurto, Lowell Kispert, Jessica Elena Mendieta‑Wejebe, and Martha Cecilia Rosales‑Hernández, “ Ethers and esters derived from apocynin avoid the interaction between p47 phox and p22 phox subunits of NADPH oxidase: evaluation in vitro and in silico ,” Bioscience Reports, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 605–616, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Giorgos K Sakellariou, Malcolm J Jackson, and Aphrodite Vasilaki, “Redefining the major contributors to superoxide production in contracting skeletal muscle. The role of NAD(P)H oxidases,” Free Radical Research, pp. 1–39, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Angélica Coyoy, Mauricio Olguín-Albuerne, Patricio Martínez-Briseño, and Julio Morán, “Role of reactive oxygen species and NADPH-oxidase in the development of rat cerebellum,” Neurochemistry International, vol. 62, no. 7, pp. 998–1011, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Helen Crehan, John Hardy, and Jennifer Pocock, “Blockage of CR1 prevents activation of rodent microglia,” Neurobiology of Disease, vol. 54, pp. 139–149, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Daliao Xiao, Xiaohui Huang, Shumei Yang, and Lubo Zhang, “Estrogen Normalizes Perinatal Nicotine-Induced Hypertensive Responses in Adult Female Rat Offspring,” Hypertension, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 1246–1254, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Shugo Suzuki, Pornsiri Pitchakarn, Shinya Sato, Tomoyuki Shirai, and Satoru Takahashi, “Apocynin, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, suppresses progression of prostate cancer via Rac1 dephosphorylation,” Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Chukwuemeka R. Nwokocha, Abena Baker, Damion Douglas, Garsha McCalla, Magdalene Nwokocha, and Paul D. Brown, “Apocynin Ameliorates Cadmium-Induced Hypertension Through Elevation of Endothelium Nitric Oxide Synthase,” Cardiovascular Toxicology, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Seung-Joo Nam, In Soo Oh, Young Ha Yoon, Bo In Kwon, Wonseok Kang, Hee Ja Kim, Seung Hoon Nahm, Youn-Hee Choi, Seung-Hyo Lee, Vito Racanelli, and Eui-Cheol Shin, “Apocynin regulates cytokine production of CD8+ T cells,” Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Zheng Sun, and Feng Liu, “Association of Nox1 and Vinculin With Colon Cancer Progression,” Cancer Investigation, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 273–278, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Brian P. Dranka, Alison Gifford, Anamitra Ghosh, Jacek Zielonka, Joy Joseph, Anumantha G. Kanthasamy, and Balaraman Kalyanaraman, “Diapocynin prevents early Parkinson's disease symptoms in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2R1441G) transgenic mouse,” Neuroscience Letters, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Marilena Colaianna, Stefania Schiavone, Margherita Zotti, Paolo Tucci, Maria Grazia Morgese, Liselotte Bäckdahl, Rikard Holmdahl, Karl-Heinz Krause, Vincenzo Cuomo, and Luigia Trabace, “Neuroendocrine Profile in a Rat Model of Psychosocial Stress: Relation to Oxidative Stress,” Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1385–1399, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Philipp A. Kofler, Haymo Pircher, Susanne von Grafenstein, Thomas Diener, Monika Hoell, Klaus R. Liedl, Karsten Siems, and Pidder Jansen-Duerr, “Characterisation of Nox4 Inhibitors from Edible Plants,” Planta Medica, vol. 79, no. 3-4, pp. 244–252, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Juan Pablo Fariña, María Elisa García, Ana Alzamendi, Andrés Giovambattista, Carlos Alberto Marra, Eduardo Spinedi, and Juan José Gagliardino, “Antioxidant treatment prevents the development of fructose-induced abdominal adipose tissue dysfunction,” Clinical Science, vol. 125, no. 2, pp. 87–97, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Bhupesh Sharma, and Nirmal Singh, “Pharmacological inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, convalesce behavior and biochemistry of hypertension induced vascular dementia in rats,” Pharmacology Biochemistry And Behavior, vol. 103, no. 4, pp. 821–830, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Joshua T. Johnstone, Paul D. Morton, Arumugam R. Jayakumar, Andrea L. Johnstone, Han Gao, Valerie Bracchi-Ricard, Damien D. Pearse, Michael D. Norenberg, and John R. Bethea, “Inhibition of NADPH Oxidase Activation in Oligodendrocytes Reduces Cytotoxicity Following Trauma,” Plos One, vol. 8, no. 11, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Rima Ramonaite, Jurgita Skieceviciene, Gediminas Kiudelis, Laimas Jonaitis, Algimantas Tamelis, Paulius Cizas, Vilmante Borutaite, and Limas Kupcinskas, “Influence of NADPH oxidase on inflammatory response in primary intestinal epithelial cells in patients with ulcerative colitis,” Bmc Gastroenterology, vol. 13, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Eun Young Kim, Marc Anderson, Cory Wilson, Henning Hagmann, Thomas Benzing, and Stuart E. Dryer, “NOX2 interacts with podocyte TRPC6 channels and contributes to their activation by diacylglycerol: essential role of podocin in formation of this complex,” American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology, vol. 305, no. 9, pp. C960–C971, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Claudia N. Paiva, and Marcelo T. Bozza, “Are Reactive Oxygen Species Always Detrimental to Pathogens?,” Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, pp. 131026121344006, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Shugo Suzuki, Kazuhide Shiraga, Shinya Sato, Wanisa Punfa, Aya Naiki-Ito, Yoriko Yamashita, Tomoyuki Shirai, and Satoru Takahashi, “Apocynin, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, suppresses rat prostate carcinogenesis,” Cancer Science, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Nick R. Love, Yaoyao Chen, Shoko Ishibashi, Paraskevi Kritsiligkou, Robert Lea, Yvette Koh, Jennifer L. Gallop, Karel Dorey, and Enrique Amaya, “Amputation-induced reactive oxygen species are required for successful Xenopus tadpole tail regeneration,” Nature Cell Biology, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 222–228, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Julio Moran, Angelica Coyoy, Mauricio Olguin-Albuerne, and Patricio Martinez-Briseno, “Role of reactive oxygen species and NADPH-oxidase in the development of rat cerebellum,” Neurochemistry International, vol. 62, no. 7, pp. 998–1011, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ali A. Sovari, Divya Arasu, Nooshin Vahdani, Shadi Zandieh, Marcelo G. Bonini, Heather S. Duffy, Cody A. Rutledge, Euy-Myoung Jeong, Lianzhi Gu, Lei Xiao, Samuel C. Dudley, Elena Dolmatova, and Hong Liu, “Mitochondria Oxidative Stress, Connexin43 Remodeling, and Sudden Arrhythmic Death,” Circulation-Arrhythmia And Electrophysiology, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 623–631, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sunil Joshi, Ammon B. Peck, and Saeed R. Khan, “NADPH Oxidase as a Therapeutic Target for Oxalate Induced Injury in Kidneys,” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2013, pp. 1–18, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Steven W. Barger, Mita Das, W. Michael Zawada, Evgeniy Panzhinskiy, W. Sue T. Griffin, and Elena Topchiy, “Nox4-Generated Superoxide Drives Angiotensin II-Induced Neural Stem Cell Proliferation,” Developmental Neuroscience, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 293–305, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Tatsuo Shimosawa, Fumiko Kawakami-Mori, Kenichi Yoshida, Sayoko Ogura, Toshiro Fujita, ShengYu Mu, Yutaka Yatomi, Mikiyasu Shirai, Takashi Sonobe, Hong Wang, and Yuzaburo Uetake, “Oxidative stress augments pulmonary hypertension in chronically hypoxic mice overexpressing the oxidized LDL receptor,” American Journal Of Physiology-Heart And Circulatory Physiology, vol. 305, no. 2, pp. H155–H162, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Rima Ramonaite, Jurgita Skieceviciene, Simonas Juzenas, Violeta Salteniene, Juozas Kupcinskas, Paulius Matusevicius, Vilmante Borutaite, and Limas Kupcinskas, “Protective action of NADPH oxidase inhibitors and role of NADPH oxidase in pathogenesis of colon inflammation in mice,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 20, no. 35, pp. 12533–12541, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Carolina L. Román, Luis E. Flores, Bárbara Maiztegui, María A. Raschia, Héctor Del Zotto, and Juan J. Gagliardino, “Islet NADPH oxidase activity modulates β-cell mass and endocrine function in rats with fructose-induced oxidative stress,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Shayne N. Hassler, Kathia M. Johnson, and Claire E. Hulsebosch, “Reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation inhibitors reduce mechanical sensitivity in a chronic neuropathic pain model of spinal cord injury in rats,” Journal of Neurochemistry, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Min Mao, Han Lei, Qing Liu, Rui He, Zhong Zuo, Nan Zhang, and Chao Zhou, “Lycopene inhibits neointimal hyperplasia through regulating lipid metabolism and suppressing oxidative stress,” Molecular Medicine Reports, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 262–268, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Despoina Kaloriti, Mette Jacobsen, Zhikang Yin, Miranda Patterson, Anna Tillmann, Deborah A. Smith, Emily Cook, Tao You, Melissa J. Grimm, Iryna Bohovych, Celso Grebogi, Brahm H. Segal, Neil A. R. Gow, Ken Haynes, Janet Quinn, and Alistair J. P. Brown, “Mechanisms Underlying the Exquisite Sensitivity of Candida albicans to Combinatorial Cationic and Oxidative Stress That Enhances the Potent Fungicidal Activity of Phagocytes,” Mbio, vol. 5, no. 4, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Christine Feillet-Coudray, Gilles Fouret, Raymond Ebabe Elle, Jennifer Rieusset, Béatrice Bonafos, Béatrice Chabi, David Crouzier, Kamelija Zarkovic, Neven Zarkovic, Jeanne Ramos, Eric Badia, Michael P. Murphy, Jean Paul Cristol, and Charles Coudray, “The mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant MitoQ ameliorates metabolic syndrome features in obesogenic diet-fed rats better than Apocynin or Allopurinol,” Free Radical Research, pp. 1–46, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Hardik Chandasana, Yashpal S. Chhonker, Veenu Bala, Yarra Durga Prasad, Vishnu L. Sharma, and Rabi S. Bhatta, “A rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS analysis of diapocynin in rat plasma to investigate in vitro and in vivo pharmacokinetics,” Analytical Methods, vol. 6, no. 17, pp. 7075, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Katarzyna Winiarska, Dorota Focht, Bartosz Sierakowski, Krystian Lewandowski, Marta Orlowska, and Michal Usarek, “NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin, improves renal glutathione status in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: a comparison with melatonin,” Chemico-Biological Interactions, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Marc Anderson, Hila Roshanravan, Justin Khine, and Stuart E. Dryer, “Angiotensin II Activation of TRPC6 Channels in Rat Podocytes Requires Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species,” Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol. 229, no. 4, pp. 434–442, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ronaldo P. Panganiban, Becky M. Vonakis, Faoud T. Ishmael, and Cristiana Stellato, “Coordinated Post-Transcriptional Regulation of the Chemokine System: Messages from CCL2,” Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 255–266, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Chananat Klomsiri, LeAnn C. Rogers, Laura Soito, Anita K. McCauley, S.Bruce King, Kimberly J. Nelson, Leslie B. Poole, and Larry W. Daniel, “Endosomal H2O2 production leads to localized cysteine sulfenic acid formation on proteins during lysophosphatidic acid-mediated cell signaling,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Boonrat Chantong, Denise V. Kratschmar, Adam Lister, and Alex Odermatt, “Dibutyltin promotes oxidative stress and increases inflammatory mediators in BV-2 microglia cells,” Toxicology Letters, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Becky A. Diebold, Susan M.E. Smith, Yang Li, and J. David Lambeth, “NOX2 As a Target for Drug Development: Indications, Possible Complications, and Progress,” Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, pp. 140324071425009, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • A. Maeda, G. Palczewska, M. Golczak, H. Kohno, Z. Dong, T. Maeda, and K. Palczewski, “Two-photon microscopy reveals early rod photoreceptor cell damage in light-exposed mutant mice,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 111, no. 14, pp. E1428–E1437, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sebastian Altenhöfer, Kim A. Radermacher, Pamela W.M. Kleikers, Kirstin Wingler, and Harald H.H.W. Schmidt, “Evolution of NADPH Oxidase Inhibitors: Selectivity and Mechanisms for Target Engagement,” Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, pp. 140226113003001, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Yo-ichi Yamashita, Daisuke Imai, Yuki Bekki, Koichi Kimura, Yoshiriro Matsumoto, Hidekazu Nakagawara, Toru Ikegami, Tomoharu Yoshizumi, Ken Shirabe, Shinichi Aishima, and Yoshihiko Maehara, “Surgical Outcomes of Hepatic Resection for Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen-Negative and Hepatitis C Virus Antibody-Negative Hepatocellular Carcinoma,” Annals of Surgical Oncology, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Talat Kilic, Hakan Parlakpinar, Elif Taslidere, Sedat Yildiz, Alaadin Polat, Nigar Vardi, Cemil Colak, and Hilal Ermis, “Protective and Therapeutic Effect of Apocynin on Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis in Rats,” Inflammation, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 1166–1180, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • T. Emre Şener, Meral Yüksel, Nagehan Özyılmaz-Yay, Feriha Ercan, Cem Akbal, Ferruh Şimşek, and Göksel Şener, “Apocynin attenuates testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats,” Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Hesham M. Ismail, Leonardo Scapozza, Urs T. Ruegg, and Olivier M. Dorchies, “Diapocynin, a Dimer of the NADPH Oxidase Inhibitor Apocynin, Reduces ROS Production and Prevents Force Loss in Eccentrically Contracting Dystrophic Muscle,” Plos One, vol. 9, no. 10, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ashish K. Sharma, Daniel P. Mulloy, Lamvy T. Le, and Victor E. Laubach, “NADPH oxidase mediates synergistic effects of IL-17 and TNF-alpha on CXCL1 expression by epithelial cells after lung ischemia-reperfusion,” American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, vol. 306, no. 1, pp. L69–L79, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Dennis K. Miller, Clark E. Oelrichs, Grace Y. Sun, and Agnes Simonyi, “Subchronic apocynin treatment attenuates methamphetamine-induced dopamine release and hyperactivity in rats,” Life Sciences, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Luana Chiquetto Paracatu, Carolina Maria Quinello Gomes Faria, Camila Quinello, Camila Rennó, Patricia Palmeira, Maria Luiza Zeraik, Luiz Marcos da Fonseca, and Valdecir Farias Ximenes, “Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester: Consequences of Its Hydrophobicity in the Oxidative Functions and Cytokine Release by Leukocytes,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2014, pp. 1–13, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Souad Mouzaoui, Bahia Djerdjouri, Nesrine Makhezer, Yolande Kroviarski, Jamel El-Benna, and Pham My-Chan Dang, “ Tumor Necrosis Factor- α -Induced Colitis Increases NADPH Oxidase 1 Expression, Oxidative Stress, and Neutrophil Recruitment in the Colon: Preventive Effect of Apocynin ,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2014, pp. 1–15, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Bert A. ‘t Hart, Sjef Copray, and Ingrid Philippens, “Apocynin, a Low Molecular Oral Treatment for Neurodegenerative Disease,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2014, pp. 1–6, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Elisabete Silva, Ana Isabel Soares, Filipe Costa, José Pedro Castro, Liliana Matos, and Henrique Almeida, “Antioxidant supplementation modulates age-related placental bed morphology and reproductive outcome in mice,” Biology of Reproduction, vol. 93, no. 3, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Li Yu, Xu-Hui Tong, Zong-Bing Fan, Yin-Ling Chen, Yan Li, and Shu-Ying Dong, “Protective effect of NADPH oxidase against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury,” Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 1126–1131, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Yasir Furkan Cagin, Mehmet Ali Erdogan, Nurhan Sahin, Hakan Parlakpinar, Atayan Yatayan, Alaadin Apolat, Nigar Vardi, Azibe Yildiz, and Kevser Tanbek, “Protective Effects of Apocynin on Cisplatin-induced Hepatotoxicity In Rats,” Archives of Medical Research, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Kazufumi Hirano, Woei Shin Chen, Adeline L.W. Chueng, Angela A. Dunne, Tamara Seredenina, Aleksandra Filippova, Sumitra Ramachandran, Angela Bridges, Laiq Chaudry, Gary Pettman, Craig Allan, Sarah Duncan, Kiew Ching Lee, Jean Lim, May Thu Ma, Agnes B. Ong, Nicole Y. Ye, Shabina Nasir, Sri Mulyanidewi, Chiu Cheong Aw, Pamela P. Oon, Shihua Liao, Dizheng Li, Douglas G. Johns, Neil D. Miller, Ceri H. Davies, Edward R. Browne, Yasuji Matsuoka, Deborah W. Chen, Vincent Jaquet, and A. Richard Rutter, “Discovery of GSK2795039, a Novel Small Molecule NADPH Oxidase 2 Inhibitor,” Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 358–374, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ibrahim Jantan, Waqas Ahmad, and Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari, “Plant-derived immunomodulators: an insight on their preclinical evaluation and clinical trials,” Frontiers in Plant Science, vol. 6, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Johanna Abrigo, María Gabriela Morales, Felipe Simon, Daniel Cabrera, Gabriella Di Capua, and Claudio Cabello-Verrugio, “Apocynin inhibits the upregulation of TGF-β1 expression and ROS production induced by TGF-β in skeletal muscle cells,” Phytomedicine, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Taeshin Kim, and Mark A. Lawson, “GnRH Regulates Gonadotropin Gene Expression Through NADPH/Dual Oxidase-Derived Reactive Oxygen Species,” Endocrinology, vol. 156, no. 6, pp. 2185–2199, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Da Hee Lee, Yoon Jeong Nam, and Chung Soo Lee, “Apocynin attenuates cholesterol oxidation product-induced programmed cell death by suppressing NF-κB-mediated cell death process in differentiated PC12 cells,” Neurochemistry International, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Florentia Papastefanaki, and Rebecca Matsas, “ From demyelination to remyelination : The road toward therapies for spinal cord injury ,” Glia, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Adrian Manea, Simona-Adriana Manea, Andra Todirita, Irina Cristina Albulescu, Monica Raicu, Shlomo Sasson, and Maya Simionescu, “High-glucose-increased expression and activation of NADPH oxidase in human vascular smooth muscle cells is mediated by 4-hydroxynonenal-activated PPARα and PPARβ/δ,” Cell and Tissue Research, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Byung Hee Han, Meng-liang Zhou, Andrew W. Johnson, Itender Singh, Fan Liao, Ananth K. Vellimana, James W. Nelson, Eric Milner, John R. Cirrito, Jacob Basak, Min Yoo, Hans H. Dietrich, David M. Holtzman, and Gregory Joseph Zipfel, “Contribution of reactive oxygen species to cerebral amyloid angiopathy, vasomotor dysfunction, and microhemorrhage in aged Tg2576 mice,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 112, no. 8, pp. E881–E890, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Peter N. Mittwede, Lusha Xiang, Silu Lu, John S. Clemmer, and Robert L. Hester, “Oxidative stress contributes to orthopedic trauma-induced acute kidney injury in obese rats,” American Journal Of Physiology-Renal Physiology, vol. 308, no. 2, pp. F157–F163, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Luana Chiquetto Paracatu, Carolina Maria Quinello Gomes de Faria, Maria Luiza Zeraik, Camila Quinello, Camila Rennó, Patrícia Palmeira, Luiz Marcos da Fonseca, and Valdecir Farias Ximenes, “Hydrophobicity and antioxidant activity acting together for the beneficial health properties of nordihydroguaiaretic acid,” Food Funct., vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 1818–1831, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Nicky Pirotte, An-Sofie Stevens, Susanna Fraguas, Michelle Plusquin, Andromeda Van Roten, Frank Van Belleghem, Rik Paesen, Marcel Ameloot, Francesc Cebrià, Tom Artois, and Karen Smeets, “Reactive Oxygen Species in Planarian Regeneration: An Upstream Necessity for Correct Patterning and Brain Formation,” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2015, pp. 1–19, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Nadezhda N. Zheleznova, Chun Yang, and Allen W. Cowley, “Role of Nox4 and p67phox subunit of Nox2 in ROS production in response to increased tubular flow in the mTAL of Dahl salt-sensitive rats,” American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology, vol. 311, no. 2, pp. F450–F458, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Julia E. Sepulveda-Diaz, Mohand O. Ouidja, Sergio B. Socias, Sabah Hamadat, Serge Guerreiro, Rita Raisman-Vozari, and Patrick P. Michel, “ A simplified approach for efficient isolation of functional microglial cells: Application for modeling neuroinflammatory responses in vitro ,” Glia, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Z. Sun, M. Satomoto, Y. U. Adachi, H. Kinoshita, and K. Makita, “Inhibiting NADPH oxidase protects against long-term memory impairment induced by neonatal sevoflurane exposure in mice,” British Journal of Anaesthesia, pp. aew064, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sheena Francis, Nicola Laurieri, Chukwuemeka Nwokocha, and Rupika Delgoda, “Treatment of Rats with Apocynin Has Considerable Inhibitory Effects on Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase Activity in the Liver,” Scientific Reports, vol. 6, pp. 26906, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Iris E. Allijn, Stefan F. C. Vaessen, Linda C. Quarles van Ufford, Kees J. Beukelman, Menno P. J. de Winther, Gert Storm, and Raymond M. Schiffelers, “Head-to-Head Comparison of Anti-Inflammatory Performance of Known Natural Products In Vitro,” Plos One, vol. 11, no. 5, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Qinbo Yang, Jingang Cui, Peiwei Wang, Xiaoye Du, Wenjian Wang, Teng Zhang, and Yu Chen, “Changes in interconnected pathways implicating microRNAs are associated with the activity of apocynin in attenuating myocardial fibrogenesis,” European Journal of Pharmacology, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • V. V. Novikov, E. V. Yablokova, and E. E. Fesenko, “The effect of weak magnetic fields on the chemiluminescence of human blood,” Biophysics, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 105–108, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ji-Eun Seo, Mahbub Hasan, Khandoker Asiqur Rahaman, Min-Jung Kang, Byung-Hwa Jung, and Oh-Seung Kwon, “A leading role for NADPH oxidase in an in-vitro study of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis,” Molecular Immunology, vol. 72, pp. 19–27, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Claude Bonne, “Potential efficiency of antioxidants to prevent pressure ulcers. A neglected hypothesis,” Medical Hypotheses, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Karen Atkinson-Leadbeater, Carrie L. Hehr, Jill Johnston, Gabriel Bertolesi, and Sarah McFarlane, “EGCG stabilizes growth cone filopodia and impairs retinal ganglion cell axon guidance,” Developmental Dynamics, vol. 245, no. 6, pp. 667–677, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • A. V. Bazalii, L. B. Drobot, and S. V. Komisarenko, “Apocynin attenuates motility and induces transition from sustained to transient EGF-dependent Akt activation in MCF-7 cells that overexpress adaptor protein Ruk/CIN85,” Biopolymers and Cell, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 21–25, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Minoru Isomura, Toru Nabika, Hasan M. Zahid, Mohammed Zubaerul Ferdaus, and Hiroki Ohara, “Effect of p22phox depletion on sympathetic regulation of blood pressure in SHRSP: Evaluation in a new congenic strain,” Scientific Reports, vol. 6, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Janaina A. Simplicio, Gabriel T. do Vale, Natália A. Gonzaga, Letícia N. Leite, Ulisses V. Hipólito, Camila A. Pereira, Rita C. Tostes, and Carlos R. Tirapelli, “Reactive oxygen species derived from NAD(P)H oxidase play a role on ethanol-induced hypertension and endothelial dysfunction in rat resistance arteries,” Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 5–16, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Marwa E. Abdelmageed, Mohammed S. El-Awady, and Ghada M. Suddek, “Apocynin ameliorates endotoxin-induced acute lung injury in rats,” International Immunopharmacology, vol. 30, pp. 163–170, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Shingo Miyamoto, Masami Komiya, Gen Fujii, Masaru Terasaki, and Michihiro Mutohpp. 183–197, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Johannes M. Breuss, and Pavel Uhrin, “Protective role of the matricellular protein CCN3 in abdominal aortic aneurysm,” Journal of Thoracic Disease, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 2365–2368, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Dinesh Kumar, Rakesh Kumar, Bikram Singh, and Paramvir Singh Ahuja, “Comprehensive Chemical Profiling of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth Using NMR, HPTLC and LC-MS/MS Techniques,” Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 200–215, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jan Kučera, Lucia Binó, Kateřina Štefková, Josef Jaroš, Ondřej Vašíček, Josef Večeřa, Lukáš Kubala, and Jiří Pacherník, “Apocynin and Diphenyleneiodonium Induce Oxidative Stress and Modulate PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk Activity in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells,” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2016, pp. 1–14, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • D. Shalini, S. Senthilkumar, and P. Rajaguru, “Effect of size and shape on toxicity of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials in human peripheral blood lymphocytes,” Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods, pp. 1–8, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Marina Valente Barroso, Marco Aurélio Martins, Cláudia Farias Benjamim, Manuella Lanzetti, Renata Tiscoski Nesi, Samuel Santos Valenca, Valdirene de Souza Muniz, Ana Carolina de Arantes, Lycia de Brito Gitirana, and Josiane Sabbadini Neves, “Pharmacological modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) improves the airway hyperresponsiveness by shifting the Th1 response in allergic inflammation induced by ovalbumin,” Free Radical Research, vol. 51, no. 7-8, pp. 708–722, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Vikas Bhardwaj, Ravindran Caspa Gokulan, Andela Horvat, Liudmila Yermalitskaya, Olga Korolkova, Kay M. Washington, Wael El-Rifai, Sergey I. Dikalov, and Alexander I. Zaika, “Activation of NADPH oxidases leads to DNA damage in esophageal cells,” Scientific Reports, vol. 7, no. 1, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Natália Alves Lima, Natália de Carvalho Scharf Santana, Nayara Cristina Alves de Lima, Danielle Lazarin-Bidóia, Patrícia de Souza Bonfim-Mendonça, Tânia Ueda Nakamura, Celso Vataru Nakamura, Marcia Edilaine Lopes Consolaro, Valdecir Farias Ximenes, and Sueli de Oliveira Silva, “Antiproliferative effect of apocynin in cervical epithelial cells infected by HPV 16 involves change of ROS production and cell cycle,” Medicinal Chemistry Research, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Frances M. Munoz, Ruby Gao, Yuzhen Tian, Brian A. Henstenburg, James E. Barrett, and Huijuan Hu, “Neuronal P2X7 receptor-induced reactive oxygen species production contributes to nociceptive behavior in mice,” Scientific Reports, vol. 7, no. 1, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Satoshi Fuji, Shugo Suzuki, Aya Naiki-Ito, Hiroyuki Kato, Masashi Hayakawa, Yoriko Yamashita, Toshiya Kuno, and Satoru Takahashi, “The NADPH Oxidase Inhibitor Apocynin Suppresses Preneoplastic Liver Foci of Rats,” Toxicologic Pathology, pp. 019262331771001, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ning Fan, Sean M. Silverman, Yang Liu, Xizhen Wang, Byung-Jin Kim, Liping Tang, Abbot F. Clark, Xuyang Liu, and Iok-Hou Pang, “Rapid repeatable in vivo detection of retinal reactive oxygen species,” Experimental Eye Research, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Silvia Cruz-Álvarez, Ricardo Santana-Martínez, Euclides Avila-Chávez, Diana Barrera-Oviedo, Rogelio Hernández-Pando, José Pedraza-Chaverri, and Perla D. Maldonado, “Apocynin protects against neurological damage induced by quinolinic acid by an increase in glutathione synthesis and Nrf2 levels,” Neuroscience, vol. 350, pp. 65–74, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Toshimitsu Okamura, Maki Okada, Tatsuya Kikuchi, Hidekatsu Wakizaka, and Ming-Rong Zhang, “Kinetics and metabolism of apocynin in the mouse brain assessed with positron-emission tomography,” Phytomedicine, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Salvatore Arena, Roberta Iacona, Pietro Antonuccio, Tiziana Russo, Vincenzo Salvo, Eloisa Gitto, Pietro Impellizzeri, and Carmelo Romeo, “Medical perspective in testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury,” Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 2115–2122, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sukanya Saha, Pritam Sadhukhan, and Parames C. Sil, “Beneficial Upshots of Naturally Occurring Antioxidant Compounds against Neurological Disorders,” Neuroprotective Natural Products, pp. 23–56, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Simone R. Potje, Jéssica A. Troiano, Murilo E. Graton, Valdecir F. Ximenes, Ana Claúdia M.S. Nakamune, and Cristina Antoniali, “Hypotensive and vasorelaxant effect of Diapocynin in normotensive rats,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Kyung-Hwa Chang, Jung-Min Park, Chang Hoon Lee, Bumseok Kim, Kyung-Chul Choi, Seong-Jin Choi, Kyuhong Lee, and Moo-Yeol Lee, “NADPH oxidase (NOX) 1 mediates cigarette smoke-induced superoxide generation in rat vascular smooth muscle cells,” Toxicology in Vitro, vol. 38, pp. 49–58, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Cezary Grochowski, Jakub Litak, Piotr Kamieniak, and Ryszard Maciejewski, “Oxidative stress in cerebral small vessel disease. Role of reactive species,” Free Radical Research, pp. 1–13, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Raghavendar Chandran, TaeHee Kim, Suresh L Mehta, Eshwar Udho, Vishal Chanana, Pelin Cengiz, HwuiWon Kim, Chanul Kim, and Raghu Vemuganti, “A combination antioxidant therapy to inhibit NOX2 and activate Nrf2 decreases secondary brain damage and improves functional recovery after traumatic brain injury,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, pp. 0271678X1773870, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Merry W. Ma, Jing Wang, Quanguang Zhang, Ruimin Wang, Krishnan M. Dhandapani, Ratna K. Vadlamudi, and Darrell W. Brann, “NADPH oxidase in brain injury and neurodegenerative disorders,” Molecular Neurodegeneration, vol. 12, no. 1, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Tessa Horemans, Gaëlle Boulet, Marian van Kerckhoven, Johannes Bogers, Sofie Thys, Chris Vervaet, Anouck Vervaeck, Peter Delputte, Louis Maes, and Paul Cos, “In-vivo evaluation of apocynin for prevention of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis,” European Journal of Cancer Prevention, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 10–16, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Hervé Kovacic, Mathieu Chocry, and Ludovic Leloup, “Reversion of resistance to oxaliplatin by inhibition of p38 MAPK in colorectal cancer cell lines: Involvement of the calpain / Nox1 pathway,” Oncotarget, vol. 8, no. 61, pp. 103710–103730, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Reham Mokhtar Aman, Irhan Ibrahim Abu Hashim, and Mahasen Mohamed Meshali, “Novel chitosan-based solid-lipid nanoparticles to enhance the bio-residence of the miraculous phytochemical “Apocynin”,” European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Yong-Beom Kwon, Fang-Fang Wang, and Hae-Dong Jang, “Anti-osteoclastic effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester in murine macrophages depends upon the suppression of superoxide anion production through the prevention of an active-Nox1 complex formation,” The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, vol. 58, pp. 158–168, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Keywan Mortezaee, “Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) and liver fibrosis: A review,” Cell Biochemistry and Function, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Spencer Dunaway, Rachel Odin, Linli Zhou, Liyuan Ji, Yuhang Zhang, and Ana L. Kadekaro, “Natural Antioxidants: Multiple Mechanisms to Protect Skin From Solar Radiation,” Frontiers in Pharmacology, vol. 9, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Hailong Guo, Guang Chen, Min Gao, Rui Wang, Yuxia Liu, and Fabiao Yu, “Imaging of Endogenous Hydrogen Peroxide during the Process of Cell Mitosis and Mouse Brain Development with a Near-Infrared Ratiometric Fluorescent Probe,” Analytical Chemistry, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • William M. Bailey, Anna Leigh McVicar, Andrew N. Stewart, Amy K. Veldhorst, John C. Gensel, and Bei Zhang, “Reducing age-dependent monocyte-derived macrophage activation contributes to the therapeutic efficacy of NADPH oxidase inhibition in spinal cord injury,” Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Marisabel Mecca, Maurizio D’Auria, and Luigi Todaro, “Effect of heat treatment on wood chemical composition, extraction yield and quality of the extractives of some wood species by the use of molybdenum catalysts,” Wood Science and Technology, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Walaa Awadin, Hend Mohamed Anter, Irhan Ibrahim Abu Hashim, and Mahasen Mohamed Meshali, “Novel anti-inflammatory film as a delivery system for the external medication with bioactive phytochemical “Apocynin”,” Drug Design, Development and Therapy, vol. 12, pp. 2981–3001, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Feng Liu, Chen Lin, Jinsheng Hong, Chuanshu Cai, Weijian Zhang, Jianrong Zhang, and Lihong Guo, “Apocynin protects retina cells from ultraviolet radiation damage via inducing sirtuin 1,” Journal of Drug Targeting, pp. 1–9, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Billie K Alba, Anna E Stanhewicz, Priyankar Dey, Richard S Bruno, W Larry Kenney, and Lacy M Alexander, “Controlled Feeding of an 8-d, High-Dairy Cheese Diet Prevents Sodium-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction in the Cutaneous Microcirculation of Healthy, Older Adults through Reductions in Superoxide,” The Journal of Nutrition, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ines Fasolino, Maria Grazia Raucci, Alessandra Soriente, Christian Demitri, Marta Madaghiele, Alessandro Sannino, and Luigi Ambrosio, “Osteoinductive and anti-inflammatory properties of chitosan-based scaffolds for bone regeneration,” Materials Science and Engineering: C, pp. 110046, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Leon G. Straub, Vissarion Efthymiou, Gerald Grandl, Miroslav Balaz, Tenagne Delessa Challa, Luca Truscello, Carla Horvath, Caroline Moser, Yael Rachamin, Myrtha Arnold, Wenfei Sun, Salvatore Modica, and Christian Wolfrum, “Antioxidants protect against diabetes by improving glucose homeostasis in mouse models of inducible insulin resistance and obesity,” Diabetologia, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sunčica Bjelica, Miloš Diklić, Dragoslava Đikić, Marijana Kovačić, Tijana Subotički, Olivera Mitrović‐Ajtić, Milica Radojković, Vladan P. Čokić, and Juan F. Santibanez, “Hydroxyurea‐induced senescent peripheral blood mesenchymal stromal cells inhibit bystander cell proliferation of JAK2V617F‐positive human erythroleukemia cells,” The FEBS Journal, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Hang Lv, Chuan'an Zhu, Ruolin Wu, Hui Ni, Jiating Lian, Yunlong Xu, Yucen Xia, Guoqi Shi, Zhixing Li, Ruth B. Caldwell, Robert William Caldwell, Lin Yao, and Yongjun Chen, “Chronic mild stress induced anxiety-like behaviors can Be attenuated by inhibition of NOX2-derived oxidative stress,” Journal of Psychiatric Research, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Zheng-De Du, Shukui Yu, Lu He, Wei Wei, Yue Qi, Teng-Fei Qu, Ke Liu, and Shu-Sheng Gong, “NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin decreases mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in the ventral cochlear nucleus of D-galactose-induced aging model in rats,” Neurochemistry International, vol. 124, pp. 31–40, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mavis A A Tenkorang, Phong Duong, and Rebecca L Cunningham, “NADPH Oxidase Mediates Membrane Androgen Receptor–Induced Neurodegeneration,” Endocrinology, vol. 160, no. 4, pp. 947–963, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Raafat Mohamed, Yingnan Cao, Rizwana Afroz, Suowen Xu, Hang Ta, Michael Barras, Wenhua Zheng, Peter J. Little, and Danielle Kamato, “ROS directly activates transforming growth factor β type 1 receptor signalling in human vascular smooth muscle cells,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects, pp. 129463, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • AndrewN Stewart, JohnC Gensel, and Bei Zhang, “Therapeutic implications of advanced age at time of spinal cord injury,” Neural Regeneration Research, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 1895, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar