Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2008, Article ID 106507, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2008/106507
Review Article

Apocynin: Molecular Aptitudes

Department of Immunopathology, Medical University of Lodz, 251 Pomorska Street, Building C5, 92-213 Lodz, Poland

Received 6 June 2008; Accepted 10 September 2008

Academic Editor: Fulvio D'Acquisto

Copyright © 2008 J. Stefanska and R. Pawliczak. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. Chlopicki, R. Olszanecki, M. Janiszewski, F. R. M. Laurindo, T. Panz, and J. Miedzobrodzki, “Functional role of NADPH oxidase in activation of platelets,” Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 691–698, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. J. Stolk, T. J. Hiltermann, J. H. Dijkman, and A. J. Verhoeven, “Characteristics of the inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation in neutrophils by apocynin, a methoxy-substituted catechol,” American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 95–102, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  3. J.-M. Li, N. P. Gall, D. J. Grieve, M. Chen, and A. M. Shah, “Activation of NADPH oxidase during progression of cardiac hypertrophy to failure,” Hypertension, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 477–484, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. R. Luchtefeld, R. Luo, K. Stine, M. L. Alt, P. A. Chernovitz, and R. E. Smith, “Dose formulation and analysis of diapocynin,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 301–306, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. S. Hougee, A. Hartog, A. Sanders et al., “Oral administration of the NADPH-oxidase inhibitor apocynin partially restores diminished cartilage proteoglycan synthesis and reduces inflammation in mice,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 531, no. 1–3, pp. 264–269, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. F. P. J. G. Lafeber, C. J. Beukelman, E. van den Worm et al., “Apocynin, a plant-derived, cartilage-saving drug, might be useful in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis,” Rheumatology, vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 1088–1093, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  7. Y. Zhang, M. M. K. Chan, M. C. Andrews et al., “Apocynin but not allopurinol prevents and reverses adrenocorticotropic hormone-induced hypertension in the rat,” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 910–916, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. S. S. Barbieri, V. Cavalca, S. Eligini et al., “Apocynin prevents cyclooxygenase 2 expression in human monocytes through NADPH oxidase and glutathione redox-dependent mechanisms,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 156–165, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. E. A. Peters, J. T. N. Hiltermann, and J. Stolk, “Effect of apocynin on ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine in asthmatics,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 31, no. 11, pp. 1442–1447, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. D. K. Johnson, K. J. Schillinger, D. M. Kwait et al., “Inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation in endothelial cells by ortho-methoxy-substituted catechols,” Endothelium, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 191–203, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. H. F. Smit, B. H. Kroes, A. J. J. van den Berg et al., “Immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activity of Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 73, no. 1-2, pp. 101–109, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. J. M. Simons, B. A. 't Hart, T. R. A. M. Ip Vai Ching, H. Van Dijk, and R. P. Labadie, “Metabolic activation of natural phenols into selective oxidative burst agonists by activated human neurophils,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 251–258, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. J. Stolk, W. Rossie, and J. H. Dijkman, “Apocynin improves the efficacy of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor in experimental emphysema,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 150, no. 6, pp. 1628–1631, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  14. E. van den Worm, C. J. Beukelman, A. J. J. van den Berg, B. H. Kroes, R. P. Labadie, and H. Van Dijk, “Effects of methoxylation of apocynin and analogs on the inhibition of reactive oxygen species production by stimulated human neutrophils,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 433, no. 2-3, pp. 225–230, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. R. A. Clark, B. D. Volpp, K. G. Leidal, and W. M. Nauseef, “Two cytosolic components of the human neutrophil respiratory burst oxidase translocate to the plasma membrane during cell activation,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 714–721, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  16. V. F. Ximenes, M. P. P. Kanegae, S. R. Rissato, and M. S. Galhiane, “The oxidation of apocynin catalyzed by myeloperoxidase: proposal for NADPH oxidase inhibition,” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 457, no. 2, pp. 134–141, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. A. A. Müller, S. A. Reiter, K. G. Heider, and H. Wagner, “Plant-derived acetophenones with antiasthmatic and anti-inflammatory properties: inhibitory effects on chemotaxis, right angle light scatter and actin polymerization of polymorphonuclear granulocytes,” Planta Medica, vol. 65, no. 7, pp. 590–594, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. R. B. R. Muijsers, E. van den Worm, G. Folkerts et al., “Apocynin inhibits peroxynitrite formation by murine macrophages,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 130, no. 4, pp. 932–936, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  19. J. W. Daly, J. Axelrod, and B. Witkop, “Dynamic aspects of enzymatic O-methylation and -demethylation of catechols in vitro and in vivo,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 235, pp. 1155–1159, 1960. View at Google Scholar
  20. Z. G. Gajewska and J. Grzybowski, “Analysis of an industrial smoke preparation,” Bromatologia i Chemia Toksykologiczna, vol. 14, pp. 3–4, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  21. J. M. Dodd-o, L. E. Welsh, J. D. Salazar et al., “Effect of NADPH oxidase inhibition on cardiopulmonary bypass-induced lung injury,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 287, no. 2, pp. H927–H936, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. D. B. Pearse and J. M. Dodd-o, “Ischemia-reperfusion lung injury is prevented by apocynin, a novel inhibitor of leukocyte NADPH oxidase,” Chest, vol. 116, supplement 1, pp. 55S–56S, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. A. B. Al-Mehdi, G. Zhao, C. Dodia et al., “Endothelial NADPH oxidase as the source of oxidants in lungs exposed to ischemia or high K+,” Circulation Research, vol. 83, no. 7, pp. 730–737, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  24. Y. Minamiya, K. Tozawa, M. Kitamura, S. Saito, and J.-I. Ogawa, “Platelet-activating factor mediates intercellular adhesion molecule-1-dependent radical production in the nonhypoxic ischemia rat lung,” American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 150–157, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  25. J. M. Dodd-o and D. B. Pearse, “Effect of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin on ischemia-reperfusion lung injury,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 279, no. 1, pp. H303–H312, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  26. D. B. Pearse, E. M. Wagner, and J. T. Sylvester, “Edema clearance in isolated sheep lungs,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 126–132, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  27. B. A. 't Hart, J. M. Simons, S. Knaan-Shanzer, N. P. M. Bakker, and R. P. Labadie, “Antiarthritic activity of the newly developed neutrophil oxidative burst antagonist apocynin,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 127–131, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. M. Salmon, H. Koto, O. T. Lynch et al., “Proliferation of airway epithelium after ozone exposure: effect of apocynin and dexamethasone,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 157, no. 3, pp. 970–977, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  29. T. S. Lapperre, L. A. Jimenez, F. Antonicelli et al., “Apocynin increases glutathione synthesis and activates AP-1 in alveolar epithelial cells,” FEBS Letters, vol. 443, no. 2, pp. 235–239, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. M. Nishikawa, M. Kudo, N. Kakemizu, H. Ikeda, and T. Okubo, “Role of superoxide anions in airway hyperresponsiveness induced by cigarette smoke in conscious guinea pigs,” Lung, vol. 174, no. 5, pp. 279–289, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  31. Q. Hamid, D. R. Springall, V. Riveros-Moreno et al., “Induction of nitric oxide synthase in asthma,” The Lancet, vol. 342, no. 8886-8887, pp. 1510–1513, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. G. Sadeghi-Hashjin, G. Folkerts, P. A. J. Henricks, R. B. R. Muijsers, and F. P. Nijkamp, “Peroxynitrite in airway diseases,” Clinical & Experimental Allergy, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 1464–1473, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. R. B. R. Muijsers, G. Folkerts, P. A. J. Henricks, G. Sadeghi-Hashjin, and F. P. Nijkamp, “Peroxynitrite: a two-faced metabolite of nitric oxide,” Life Sciences, vol. 60, no. 21, pp. 1833–1845, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  34. G. Sadeghi-Hashjin, G. Folkerts, P. A. J. Henricks et al., “Peroxynitrite induces airway hyperresponsiveness in guinea pigs in vitro and in vivo,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 153, no. 5, pp. 1697–1701, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  35. L. L. Tang, K. Ye, X. F. Yang, and J. S. Zheng, “Apocynin attenuates cerebral infarction after transient focal ischaemia in rats,” Journal of International Medical Research, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 517–522, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  36. Q. Wang, K. D. Tompkins, A. Simonyi, R. J. Korthuis, A. Y. Sun, and G. Y. Sun, “Apocynin protects against global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion-induced oxidative stress and injury in the gerbil hippocampus,” Brain Research, vol. 1090, no. 1, pp. 182–189, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. J. S. Zheng, R. Y. Zhan, S. S. Zheng, Y. Q. Zhou, Y. Tong, and S. Wan, “Inhibition of NADPH oxidase attenuates vasospasm after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats,” Stroke, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 1059–1064, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  38. W. Lo, T. Bravo, V. Jadhav, E. Titova, J. H. Zhang, and J. Tang, “NADPH oxidase inhibition improves neurological outcomes in surgically-induced brain injury,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 414, no. 3, pp. 228–232, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. E. Titova, R. P. Ostrowski, L. C. Sowers, J. H. Zhang, and J. Tang, “Effects of apocynin and ethanol on intracerebral haemorrhage-induced brain injury in rats,” Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 845–850, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. X. N. Tang, B. Cairns, N. Cairns, and M. A. Yenari, “Apocynin improves outcome in experimental stroke with a narrow dose range,” Neuroscience, vol. 154, no. 2, pp. 556–562, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. D. W. Crawford and D. H. Blankenhorn, “Arterial wall oxygenation, oxyradicals, and atherosclerosis,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 89, no. 2-3, pp. 97–108, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  42. J. R. Hessler, D. W. Morel, L. J. Lewis, and G. M. Chisolm, “Lipoprotein oxidation and lipoprotein-induced cytotoxicity,” Arteriosclerosis, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 215–222, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  43. J. A. Holland, J. W. Meyer, M.-M. Chang, R. W. O'Donnell, D. K. Johnson, and L. M. Ziegler, “Thrombin stimulated reactive oxygen species production in cultured human endothelial cells,” Endothelium, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 113–121, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  44. J. A. Holland, J. W. Meyer, M. E. Schmitt et al., “Low-density lipoprotein stimulated peroxide production and endocytosis in cultured human endothelial cells: mechanisms of action,” Endothelium, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 191–207, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  45. J. A. Holland, “Prevention of atherosclerosis using NADPH oxidase inhibitors,” US patent no. 5902831, 1999.
  46. J. W. Meyer, J. A. Holland, L. M. Ziegler, M.-M. Chang, G. Beebe, and M. E. Schmitt, “Identification of a functional leukocyte-type NADPH oxidase in human endothelial cells: a potential atherogenic source of reactive oxygen species,” Endothelium, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 11–22, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  47. J. W. Meyer and M. E. Schmitt, “A central role for the endothelial NADPH oxidase in atherosclerosis,” FEBS Letters, vol. 472, no. 1, pp. 1–4, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. V. Diatchuk, O. Lotan, V. Koshkin, P. Wikstroem, and E. Pick, “Inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation by 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride and related compounds,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 272, no. 20, pp. 13292–13301, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. C. A. Hamilton, M. J. Brosnan, S. Al-Benna, G. Berg, and A. F. Dominiczak, “NAD(P)H oxidase inhibition improves endothelial function in rat and human blood vessels,” Hypertension, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 755–762, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. T. M. Paravicini, L. M. Gulluyan, G. J. Dusting, and G. R. Drummond, “Increased NADPH oxidase activity, gp91phox expression, and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation during neointima formation in rabbits,” Circulation Research, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 54–61, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  51. G. J. Dusting, A. Curcio, P. J. Harris, B. Lima, M. Zambetis, and J. F. Martin, “Supersensitivity to vasoconstrictor action of serotonin precedes the development of atheroma-like lesions in the rabbit,” Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 667–674, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  52. R. A. Beswick, A. M. Dorrance, R. Leite, and R. C. Webb, “NADH/NADPH oxidase and enhanced superoxide production in the mineralocorticoid hypertensive rat,” Hypertension, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 1107–1111, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  53. M. Ghosh, H. D. Wang, and J. R. McNeill, “Role of oxidative stress and nitric oxide in regulation of spontaneous tone in aorta of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 141, no. 4, pp. 562–573, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. E. C. Chan, S. R. Datla, R. Dilley, H. Hickey, G. R. Drummond, and G. J. Dusting, “Adventitial application of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin in vivo reduces neointima formation and endothelial dysfunction in rabbits,” Cardiovascular Research, vol. 75, no. 4, pp. 710–718, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  55. F. Engels, B. F. Renirie, B. A. 't Hart, R. P. Labadie, and F. P. Nijkamp, “Effects of apocynin, a drug isolated from the roots of Picrorhiza kurroa, on arachidonic acid metabolism,” FEBS Letters, vol. 305, no. 3, pp. 254–256, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  56. N. E. Taylor, P. Glocka, M. Liang, and A. W. Cowley Jr., “NADPH oxidase in the renal medulla causes oxidative stress and contributes to salt-sensitive hypertension in Dahl S rats,” Hypertension, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 692–698, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  57. L. Jin, R. A. Beswick, T. Yamamoto et al., “Increased reactive oxygen species contributes to kidney injury in mineralocorticoid hypertensive rats,” Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 343–357, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  58. N. J. Hong and J. L. Garvin, “Flow increases superoxide production by NADPH oxidase via activation of Na-K-2Cl cotransport and mechanical stress in thick ascending limbs,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 292, no. 3, pp. F993–F998, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  59. L. Hu, Y. Zhang, P. S. Lim et al., “Apocynin but not L-arginine prevents and reverses dexamethasone-induced hypertension in the rat,” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 413–418, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  60. G. M. Wilkins, A. W. Segal, and D. S. Leake, “NADPH oxidase is not essential for low density lipoprotein oxidation by human monocyte-derived macrophages,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 202, no. 3, pp. 1300–1307, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  61. M. Aviram, M. Rosenblat, A. Etzioni, and R. Levy, “Activation of NADPH oxidase is required for macrophage-mediated oxidation of low-density lipoprotein,” Metabolism, vol. 45, no. 9, pp. 1069–1079, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  62. T. S. Hiran, P. J. Moulton, and J. T. Hancock, “Detection of superoxide and NAPDH oxidase in porcine articular chondrocytes,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 736–743, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  63. P. J. Moulton, M. B. Goldring, and J. T. Hancock, “NADPH oxidase of chondrocytes contains an isoform of the gp91phox subunit,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 329, no. 3, pp. 449–451, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  64. P. J. Barnes and M. Karin, “Nuclear factor-κB—a pivotal transcription factor in chronic inflammatory diseases,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 336, no. 15, pp. 1066–1071, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  65. B. A. 't Hart, N. P. Bakker, R. P. Labadie, and J. M. Simons, “The newly developed neutrophil oxidative burst antagonist apocynin inhibits joint-swelling in rat collagen arthritis,” Agents and Actions Supplements, vol. 32, pp. 179–184, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  66. B. A. 't Hart, J. G. R. Elferink, and P. H. Nibbering, “Effect of apocynin on the induction of ulcerative lesions in rat skin injected with tubercle bacteria,” International Journal of Immunopharmacology, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 953–961, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  67. R. B. R. Muijsers, I. van Ark, G. Folkerts et al., “Apocynin and 1400?W prevents airway hyperresponsiveness during allergic reactions in mice,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 134, no. 2, pp. 434–440, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  68. J. D. Bradley, K. D. Brandt, B. P. Katz, L. A. Kalasinski, and S. I. Ryan, “Treatment of knee osteoarthritis: relationship of clinical features of joint inflammation to the response to a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug or pure analgesic,” Journal of Rheumatology, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 1950–1954, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  69. E. Collantes, S. P. Curtis, K. W. Lee et al., “A multinational randomized, controlled, clinical trial of etoricoxib inthetreatment of rheumatoid arthritis [ISRCTN25142273],” BMC Family Practice, vol. 3, pp. 1–10, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  70. G. A. FitzGerald and C. Patrono, “The coxibs, selective inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 345, no. 6, pp. 433–442, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  71. C. Riganti, C. Costamagna, A. Bosia, and D. Ghigo, “The NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin (acetovanillone) induces oxidative stress,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 212, no. 3, pp. 179–187, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  72. M. Kudo, M. Nishikawa, H. Ikeda, and T. Okubo, “Involvement of superoxide anions in ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in unanesthetized guinea pigs,” Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 25–30, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  73. C. Riganti, C. Costamagna, S. Doublier et al., “The NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin induces nitric oxide synthesis via oxidative stress,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 228, no. 3, pp. 277–285, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  74. A. Pietersma, N. de Jong, L. E. de Wit, R. G. Kraak-Slee, J. F. Koster, and W. Sluiter, “Evidence against the involvement of multiple radical generating sites in the expression of the vascular cell adhesion molecule-1,” Free Radical Research, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 137–150, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  75. S. Heumüller, S. Wind, E. Barbosa-Sicard et al., “Apocynin is not an inhibitor of vascular NADPH oxidases but an antioxidant,” Hypertension, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 211–217, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  76. L. P. Akard, D. English, and T. G. Gabig, “Rapid deactivation of NADPH oxidase in neutrophils: continuous replacement by newly activated enzyme sustains the respiratory burst,” Blood, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 322–327, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  77. G. K. Bysani, T. P. Kennedy, N. Ky, N. V. Rao, C. A. Blaze, and J. R. Hoidal, “Role of cytochrome P-450 in reperfusion injury of the rabbit lung,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 86, no. 5, pp. 1434–1441, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  78. A. G. Ljungman, C. M. Grum, G. M. Deeb, S. F. Bolling, and M. L. Morganroth, “Inhibition of cyclooxygenase metabolite production attenuates ischemia-reperfusion lung injury,” American Review of Respiratory Disease, vol. 143, no. 3, pp. 610–617, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  79. R. F. Klees, P. C. De Marco, R. M. Salasznyk et al., “Apocynin derivatives interrupt intracellular signaling resulting in decreased migration in breast cancer cells,” Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, vol. 2006, Article ID 87246, 10 pages, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  80. H. E. Matheny, T. L. Deem, and J. M. Cook-Mills, “Lymphocyte migration through monolayers of endothelial cell lines involves VCAM-1 signaling via endothelial cell NADPH oxidase,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 164, no. 12, pp. 6550–6559, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  81. M. Vejražka, R. Míček, and S. Štípek, “Apocynin inhibits NADPH oxidase in phagocytes but stimulates ROS production in non-phagocytic cells,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1722, no. 2, pp. 143–147, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  82. H. W. M. Niessen, T. W. Kuijpers, D. Roos, and A. J. Verhoeven, “Release of azurophil granule contents in fMLP-stimulated neutrophils requires two activation signals, one of which is a rise in cytosolic free Ca2+,” Cellular Signalling, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 625–633, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar