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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2009, Article ID 959281, 6 pages
Clinical Study

Gender Differences Relating to Metabolic Syndrome and Proinflammation in Finnish Subjects with Elevated Blood Pressure

1Palokka Health Center, 40270 Jyväskylä, Finland
2Department of Medicine, Central Finland Central Hospital, 40600 Jyväskylä, Finland
3Department of Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, University of Kuopio, 70210 Kuopio, Finland
4ORTON, Rehabilitation Unit, 00280 Helsinki, Finland
5Unit of General Practice, Central Finland Central Hospital, 40600 Jyväskylä, Finland
6Department of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Kuopio, 70210 Kuopio, Finland
7Unit of Family Practice, Kuopio University Hospital, 70210 Kuopio, Finland

Received 28 January 2009; Revised 4 May 2009; Accepted 2 July 2009

Academic Editor: Dennis Daniel Taub

Copyright © 2009 Tiina Ahonen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Fasting insulin, adiponectin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) were determined in 278 men and 273 women with blood pressure 130 and/or 85 mmHg and/or with antihypertensive medication. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) with the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria was observed in 35% of men and 34% of women. Men with MetS had lower hs-CRP and IL-1Ra than women. The absolute gender difference in adiponectin was smaller and those in IL-1Ra and hs-CRP were greater in subjects with MetS compared to those without. After adjustment with body mass index the association between insulin and the odd's ratio (OR) for MetS remained significant in both genders, in females also the association between the OR for MetS and adiponectin. There are gender differences in subjects with elevated blood pressure and MetS with respect to inflammatory markers and the relationship between adiponectin levels and MetS.