Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2009 (2009), Article ID 959281, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2009/959281
Clinical Study

Gender Differences Relating to Metabolic Syndrome and Proinflammation in Finnish Subjects with Elevated Blood Pressure

1Palokka Health Center, 40270 Jyväskylä, Finland
2Department of Medicine, Central Finland Central Hospital, 40600 Jyväskylä, Finland
3Department of Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, University of Kuopio, 70210 Kuopio, Finland
4ORTON, Rehabilitation Unit, 00280 Helsinki, Finland
5Unit of General Practice, Central Finland Central Hospital, 40600 Jyväskylä, Finland
6Department of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Kuopio, 70210 Kuopio, Finland
7Unit of Family Practice, Kuopio University Hospital, 70210 Kuopio, Finland

Received 28 January 2009; Revised 4 May 2009; Accepted 2 July 2009

Academic Editor: Dennis Daniel Taub

Copyright © 2009 Tiina Ahonen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. E. Ferrannini, G. Buzzigoli, R. Bonadonna et al., “Insulin resistance in essential hypertension,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 317, no. 6, pp. 350–357, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  2. T. Pollare, H. Lithell, and C. Berne, “Insulin resistance is a characteristic feature of primary hypertension independent of obesity,” Metabolism, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 167–174, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. A. L. M. Swislocki, B. B. Hoffman, and G. M. Reaven, “Insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia in patients with hypertension,” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 419–423, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  4. E. Ferrannini, S. M. Haffner, B. D. Mitchell, and M. P. Stern, “Hyperinsulinaemia: the key feature of cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome,” Diabetologia, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 416–422, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  5. G. M. Reaven, “Banting lecture 1988. Role of insulin resistance in human disease,” Diabetes, vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 1595–1607, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  6. E. S. Ford, H. W. Kohl III, A. H. Mokdad, and U. A. Ajani, “Sedentary behavior, physical activity, and the metabolic syndrome among U.S. adults,” Obesity Research, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 608–614, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  7. T. A. Lakka, D. E. Laaksonen, H.-M. Lakka et al., “Sedentary lifestyle, poor cardiorespiratory fitness, and the metabolic syndrome,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 1279–1286, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. K. L. Rennie, N. McCarthy, S. Yazdgerdi, M. Marmot, and E. Brunner, “Association of the metabolic syndrome with both vigorous and moderate physical activity,” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 600–606, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. I. Holme, S. Tonstad, A. J. Sogaard, P. G. L. Larsen, and L. L. Håheim, “Leisure time physical activity in middle age predicts the metabolic syndrome in old age: results of a 28-year follow-up of men in the Oslo study,” BMC Public Health, vol. 7, article 154, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. T. Wada, M. Urashima, and T. Fukumoto, “Risk of metabolic syndrome persists twenty years after the cessation of smoking,” Internal Medicine, vol. 46, no. 14, pp. 1079–1082, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. H. Yokoyama, H. Hiroshi, H. Ohgo, T. Hibi, and I. Saito, “Effects of excessive ethanol consumption on the diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome using its clinical diagnostic criteria,” Internal Medicine, vol. 46, no. 17, pp. 1345–1352, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. E. E. Kershaw and J. S. Flier, “Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 89, no. 6, pp. 2548–2556, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. M. Nishida, T. Funahashi, and I. Shimomura, “Pathophysiological significance of adiponectin,” Medical Molecular Morphology, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 55–67, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. M. Ryo, T. Nakamura, S. Kihara et al., “Adiponectin as a biomarker of the metabolic syndrome,” Circulation Journal, vol. 68, no. 11, pp. 975–981, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. K. Matsushita, K. Tamakoshi, H. Yatsuya et al., “Further inflammatory information on metabolic syndrome by adiponectin evaluation,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 124, no. 3, pp. 339–344, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. L. E. Bautista, J. E. Atwood, P. G. O'Malley, and A. J. Taylor, “Association between C-reactive protein and hypertension in healthy middle-aged men and women,” Coronary Artery Disease, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 331–336, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. M. Fröhlich, A. Imhof, G. Berg et al., “Association between C-reactive protein and features of the metabolic syndrome,” Diabetes Care, vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 1835–1839, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  18. J. Jager, T. Grémeaux, M. Cormont, Y. Le Marchand-Brustel, and J.-F. Tanti, “Interleukin-1β-induced insulin resistance in adipocytes through down-regulation of insulin receptor substrate-1 expression,” Endocrinology, vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 241–251, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. G. N. Dalekos, M. Elisaf, E. Bairaktari, O. Tsolas, and K. C. Siamopoulos, “Increased serum levels of interleukin-1β in the systemic circulation of patients with essential hypertension: additional risk factor for atherogenesis in hypertensive patients?” Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, vol. 129, no. 3, pp. 300–308, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  20. A. C. T. M. Peeters, M. G. Netea, M. C. H. Janssen, B. J. Kullberg, J. W. M. Van der Meer, and T. Thien, “Pro-inflammatory cytokines in patients with essential hypertension,” European Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 31–36, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. M. Vanhala, H. Kautiainen, and E. Kumpusalo, “Proinflammation and hypertension: a population-based study,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2008, Article ID 619704, 7 pages, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. A. M. Abbatecola, L. Ferrucci, R. Grella et al., “Diverse effect of inflammatory markers on insulin resistance and insulin-resistance syndrome in the elderly,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 399–404, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. E. Ruotsalainen, U. Salmenniemi, I. Vauhkonen et al., “Changes in inflammatory cytokines are related to impaired glucose tolerance in offspring of type 2 diabetic subjects,” Diabetes Care, vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 2714–2720, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. G. Schillaci, M. Pirro, G. Vaudo et al., “Prognostic value of the metabolic syndrome in essential hypertension,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 43, no. 10, pp. 1817–1822, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. G. Mule, E. Nardi, S. Cottone et al., “Impact of the metabolic syndrome on total arterial compliance in essential hypertension patients.,” Journal of the Cardiometabolic Syndrome, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 84–90, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. G. Schillaci, M. Pirro, G. Vaudo et al., “Metabolic syndrome is associated with aortic stiffness in untreated essential hypertension,” Hypertension, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 1078–1082, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. J. Saltevo, M. Vanhala, H. Kautiainen, E. Kumpusalo, and M. Laakso, “Gender differences in C-reactive protein, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and adiponectin levels in the metabolic syndrome: a population-based study,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 747–750, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. T. Pischon, F. B. Hu, K. M. Rexrode, C. J. Girman, J. E. Manson, and E. B. Rimm, “Inflammation, the metabolic syndrome, and risk of coronary heart disease in women and men,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 197, no. 1, pp. 392–399, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. S. Sciarretta, A. Ferrucci, G. M. Ciavarella et al., “Markers of inflammation and fibrosis are related to cardiovascular damage in hypertensive pwith metabolic syndrome,” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 784–791, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. G. Schillaci, M. Pirro, G. Pucci et al., “Different impact of the metabolic syndrome on left ventricular structure and function in hypertensive men and women,” Hypertension, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 881–886, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. B. Thorand, J. Baumert, H. Kolb et al., “Sex differences in the prediction of type 2 diabetes by inflammatory markers: results from the MONICA/KORA Augsburg case-cohort study, 1984–2002,” Diabetes Care, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 854–860, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. B. Efron and R. Tibshirani, An Introduction to the Bootstrap, Chapman and Hall/CRC, New York, NY, USA, 1998.
  33. H. Tilg and A. R. Moschen, “Adipocytokines: mediators linking adipose tissue, inflammation and immunity,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 772–783, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. K. Blouin, A. Boivin, and A. Tchernof, “Androgens and body fat distribution,” Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 108, no. 3–5, pp. 272–280, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. T. You, A. S. Ryan, and B. J. Nicklas, “The metabolic syndrome in obese postmenopausal women: relationship to body composition, visceral fat, and inflammation,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 89, no. 11, pp. 5517–5522, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. C. E. Juge-Aubry, E. Somm, R. Chicheportiche et al., “Regulatory effects of interleukin (IL)-1, interferon-ß, and IL-4 on the production of IL-1 receptor antagonist by human adipose tissue,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 89, no. 6, pp. 2652–2658, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. B. Galve-de Rochemonteix, K. Wiktorowicz, I. Kushner, and J.-M. Dayer, “C-reactive protein increases production of IL-1α, IL-1β, and TNF-α, and expression of mRNA by human alveolar macrophages,” Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 439–445, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  38. M. B. Snijder, J. M. Dekker, M. Visser et al., “Prospective relation of C-reactive protein with type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 1656–1658, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. Y. Doi, Y. Kiyohara, M. Kubo et al., “Elevated C-reactive protein is a predictor of the development of diabetes in a general Japanese population: the Hisayama study,” Diabetes Care, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 2497–2500, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. T. S. Han, N. Sattar, K. Williams, C. Gonzalez-Villalpando, M. E. J. Lean, and S. M. Haffner, “Prospective study of C-reactive protein in relation to the development of diabetes and metabolic syndrome in the Mexico City diabetes study,” Diabetes Care, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 2016–2021, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. S. R. Kashyap and R. A. Defronzo, “The insulin resistance syndrome: physiological considerations,” Diabetes and Vascular Disease Research, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 13–19, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. P. Arner, “Insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes: role of fatty acids,” Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, vol. 18, supplement 2, pp. S5–S9, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. R. H. Eckel, S. M. Grundy, and P. Z. Zimmet, “The metabolic syndrome,” The Lancet, vol. 365, no. 9468, pp. 1415–1428, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar