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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2010, Article ID 174341, 26 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/174341
Review Article

Adipocytokines in Atherothrombosis: Focus on Platelets and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, Internal Medicine and Metabolic Disease Unit, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, San Luigi Gonzaga Faculty of Medicine of the Turin University, Orbassano,10043 Turin, Italy

Received 9 November 2009; Revised 14 March 2010; Accepted 29 April 2010

Academic Editor: Gema Frühbeck

Copyright © 2010 Giovanni Anfossi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Visceral obesity is a relevant pathological condition closely associated with high risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease including myocardial infarction and stroke. The increased vascular risk is related also to peculiar dysfunction in the endocrine activity of adipose tissue responsible of vascular impairment (including endothelial dysfunction), prothrombotic tendency, and low-grade chronic inflammation. In particular, increased synthesis and release of different cytokines, including interleukins and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- ), and adipokines—such as leptin—have been reported as associated with future cardiovascular events. Since vascular cell dysfunction plays a major role in the atherothrombotic complications in central obesity, this paper aims at focusing, in particular, on the relationship between platelets and vascular smooth muscle cells, and the impaired secretory pattern of adipose tissue.