Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2010, Article ID 535918, 17 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/535918
Review Article

Inflammation, a Link between Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease

Division of Laboratory Medicine, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Ooyaguchi-kamimachi, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8610, Japan

Received 30 November 2009; Revised 10 March 2010; Accepted 17 June 2010

Academic Editor: Gema Frühbeck

Copyright © 2010 Zhaoxia Wang and Tomohiro Nakayama. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. R. Sowers, “Obesity as a cardiovascular risk factor,” The American Journal of Medicine, vol. 115, no. 8, pp. 37–41, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. The World Health Report 2002, Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2002.
  3. N. Aoi, M. Soma, T. Nakayama, D. Rahmutula, K. Kosuge, Y. Izumi, and K. Matsumoto, “Variable number of tandem repeat of the 5-flanking region of type-C human natriuretic peptide receptor gene influences blood pressure levels in obesity-associated hypertension,” Hypertension Research, vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 711–716, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. K. Kosuge, M. Soma, and M. Soma, “Human uncoupling protein 2 and 3 genes are associated with obesity in Japanese,” Endocrine, vol. 34, no. 1–3, pp. 87–95, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  5. K. Strohacker and B. K. McFarlin, “Influence of obesity, physical inactivity, and weight cycling on chronic inflammation,” Frontiers in Bioscience, vol. 2, pp. 98–104, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  6. K. J. Williams and I. Tabas, “The response-to-retention hypothesis of atherogenesis reinforced,” Current Opinion in Lipidology, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 471–474, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. K. J. Williams and I. Tabas, “Lipoprotein retention- and clues for atheroma regression,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 1536–1540, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  8. Y. Zhang, R. Proenca, M. Maffei, M. Barone, L. Leopold, and J. M. Friedman, “Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and its human homologue,” Nature, vol. 372, no. 6505, pp. 425–432, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  9. A. D. Attie and P. E. Scherer, “Adipocyte metabolism and obesity,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 50, supplement, pp. S395–S399, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  10. V. DeClercq, C. Taylor, and P. Zahradka, “Adipose tissue: the link between obesity and cardiovascular disease,” Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 228–237, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. C. Fattah, N. Farah, S. Barry, N. O'Connor, B. Stuart, and M. J. Turner, “The measurement of maternal adiposity,” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 686–689, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  12. H. N. Sweeting, “Measurement and definitions of obesity in childhood and adolescence: a field guide for the uninitiated,” Nutrition Journal, vol. 6, article 32, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  13. M. Zamboni, E. Turcato, and E. Turcato, “Sagittal abdominal diameter as a practical predictor of visceral fat,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 655–660, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. H. S. Kahn, “Choosing an index for abdominal obesity: an opportunity for epidemiologic clarification,” Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 491–494, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. W. Rajala and P. E. Scherer, “Minireview: the adipocyte—at the crossroads of energy homeostasis, inflammation, and atherosclerosis,” Endocrinology, vol. 144, no. 9, pp. 3765–3773, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. Rodríguez, V. Catalán, J. Gómez-Ambrosi, and G. Frühbeck, “Visceral and subcutaneous adiposity: are both potential therapeutic targets for tackling the metabolic syndrome?” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 13, no. 21, pp. 2169–2175, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. Bjorntorp, “The regulation of adipose tissue distribution in humans,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 291–302, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  18. J. Stevens, E. G. Katz, and R. R. Huxley, “Associations between gender, age and waist circumference,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 6–15, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  19. E. B. Geer and W. Shen, “Gender differences in insulin resistance, body composition, and energy balance,” Gender Medicine, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 60–75, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  20. D. Canoy, “Distribution of body fat and risk of coronary heart disease in men and women,” Current Opinion in Cardiology, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 591–598, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  21. F. Samad, K. Yamamoto, M. Pandey, and D. J. Loskutoff, “Elevated expression of transforming growth factor-β in adipose tissue from obese mice,” Molecular Medicine, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 37–48, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. K. Fried, D. A. Bunkin, and A. S. Greenberg, “Omental and subcutaneous adipose tissues of obese subjects release interleukin-6: depot difference and regulation by glucocorticoid,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 847–850, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. P. Weisberg, D. McCann, M. Desai, M. Rosenbaum, R. L. Leibel, and A. W. Ferrante Jr., “Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 112, no. 12, pp. 1796–1808, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  24. S. Cinti, G. Mitchell, and G. Mitchell, “Adipocyte death defines macrophage localization and function in adipose tissue of obese mice and humans,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 2347–2355, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  25. M. K. Öhman, Y. Shen, C. I. Obimba, A. P. Wright, M. Warnock, D. A. Lawrence, and D. T. Eitzman, “Visceral adipose tissue inflammation accelerates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice,” Circulation, vol. 117, no. 6, pp. 798–805, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  26. M. Tarakçioǧlu, A. B. Erbaǧci, C. Usalan, R. Deveci, and R. Kocabaş, “Acute effect of hemodialysis on serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokines,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 15–19, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  27. T. P. Johnston, Y. Li, A. S. Jamal, D. J. Stechschulte, and K. N. Dileepan, “Poloxamer 407-induced atherosclerosis in mice appears to be due to lipid derangements and not due to its direct effects on endothelial cells and macrophages,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 147–155, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  28. C. Karlsson, K. Lindell, M. Ottosson, L. Sjöström, B. Carlsson, and L. M. S. Carlsson, “Human adipose tissue expresses angiotensinogen and enzymes required for its conversion to angiotensin II,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 83, no. 11, pp. 3925–3929, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. G. Frühbeck, “The adipose tissue as a source of vasoactive factors,” Current Medicinal Chemistry: Cardiovascular and Hematological Agents, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 197–208, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. C. C. Wee, K. J. Mukamal, A. Huang, R. B. Davis, E. P. McCarthy, and M. A. Mittleman, “Obesity and C-reactive protein levels among white, black, and hispanic US adults,” Obesity, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 875–880, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  31. J. F. Keaney Jr., M. G. Larson, and M. G. Larson, “Obesity and systemic oxidative stress: clinical correlates of oxidative stress in the Framingham study,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 434–439, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  32. M. Ryo, T. Nakamura, and T. Nakamura, “Adiponectin as a biomarker of the metabolic syndrome,” Circulation Journal, vol. 68, no. 11, pp. 975–981, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. S. Yudkin, M. Kumari, S. E. Humphries, and V. Mohamed-Ali, “Inflammation, obesity, stress and coronary heart disease: is interleukin-6 the link?” Atherosclerosis, vol. 148, no. 2, pp. 209–214, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. R. Hayaishi-Okano, Y. Yamasaki, and Y. Yamasaki, “Elevated C-reactive protein associates with early-stage carotid atherosclerosis in young subjects with type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 1432–1438, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. V. Sigurdardottir, B. Fagerberg, and J. Hulthe, “Preclinical atherosclerosis and inflammation in 61-year-old men with newly diagnosed diabetes and established diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 880–884, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. Saremi, R. J. Anderson, P. Luo, T. E. Moritz, D. C. Schwenke, M. Allison, and P. D. Reaven, “Association between IL-6 and the extent of coronary atherosclerosis in the veterans affairs diabetes trial (VADT),” Atherosclerosis, vol. 203, no. 2, pp. 610–614, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  37. N. Katakami, H. Kaneto, and H. Kaneto, “Association of soluble CD40 ligand with carotid atherosclerosis in Japanese type 1 diabetic patients,” Diabetologia, vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 1670–1676, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  38. M. P. Reilly, N. Iqbal, and N. Iqbal, “Plasma leptin levels are associated with coronary atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 89, no. 8, pp. 3872–3878, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  39. M. B. Pepys and G. M. Hirschfield, “C-reactive protein: a critical update,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 111, no. 12, pp. 1805–1812, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. P. M. van der Zee, E. Biró, and E. Biró, “C-reactive protein in myocardial infarction binds to circulating microparticles but is not associated with complement activation,” Clinical Immunology, vol. 135, no. 3, pp. 490–495, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  41. S. Kaptoge, E. D. Angelantonio, G. Lowe et al., “C-reactive protein concentration and risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, and mortality: an individual participant meta-analysis,” The Lancet, vol. 375, no. 9709, pp. 132–140, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  42. Y. Momiyama, R. Ohmori, and R. Ohmori, “Associations between plasma C-reactive protein levels and the severities of coronary and aortic atherosclerosis,” Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 460–467, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. N. Ouchi, S. Kihara, and S. Kihara, “Reciprocal association of C-reactive protein with adiponectin in blood stream and adipose tissue,” Circulation, vol. 107, no. 5, pp. 671–674, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. K. Esposito, A. Pontillo, C. Di Palo, G. Giugliano, M. Masella, R. Marfella, and D. Giugliano, “Effect of weight loss and lifestyle changes on vascular inflammatory markers in obese women: a randomized trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 289, no. 14, pp. 1799–1804, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  45. K. Esposito, R. Marfella, and R. Marfella, “Effect of a Mediterranean-style diet on endothelial dysfunction and markers of vascular inflammation in the metabolic syndrome: a randomized trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 292, no. 12, pp. 1440–1446, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  46. K. Okita, H. Nishijima, and H. Nishijima, “Can exercise training with weight loss lower serum C-reactive protein levels?” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 1868–1873, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  47. C. E. Donges, R. Duffield, and E. J. Drinkwater, “Effects of resistance or aerobic exercise training on interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and body composition,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 304–313, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  48. J. J. Mann, J. R. Payne, T. Shah, D. J. Pennell, S. E. Humphries, and H. E. Montgomery, “C-reactive protein gene variant and the human left ventricular growth response to exercise: data from the LARGE heart study,” Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 26–29, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  49. E. Malle and F. C. de Beer, “Human serum amyloid A (SAA) protein: a prominent acute-phase reactant for clinical practice,” European Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 427–435, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. C. Gabay and I. Kushner, “Acute-phase proteins and other systemic responses to inflammation,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 340, no. 6, pp. 448–454, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. T. Yamada, “Inflammatory markers; C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA),” Rinsho Byori, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 558–561, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. C. Poitou, N. Viguerie, and N. Viguerie, “Serum amyloid A: production by human white adipocyte and regulation by obesity and nutrition,” Diabetologia, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 519–528, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  53. R. Kisilevsky and S.-P. Tam, “Acute phase serum amyloid A, cholesterol metabolism, and cardiovascular disease,” Pediatric Pathology & Molecular Medicine, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 291–305, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  54. P. Libby and P. M. Ridker, “Novel inflammatory markers of coronary risk: theory versus practice,” Circulation, vol. 100, no. 11, pp. 1148–1150, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. Y. Zhao, X. He, X. Shi, C. Huang, J. Liu, S. Zhou, and C.-K. Heng, “Association between serum amyloid A and obesity: a meta-analysis and systematic review,” Inflammation Research, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 323–334, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  56. J. Danesh, J. Muir, Y.-K. Wong, M. Ward, J. R. Gallimore, and M. B. Pepys, “Risk factors for coronary heart disease and acute-phase proteins. A population-based study,” European Heart Journal, vol. 20, no. 13, pp. 954–959, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  57. J. Jylhävä, A. Haarala, and A. Haarala, “Serum amyloid A is independently associated with metabolic risk factors but not with early atherosclerosis: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 266, no. 3, pp. 286–295, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  58. J. Gómez-Ambrosi, C. Azcona, A. Patiño-García, and G. Frühbeck, “Serum amyloid A concentration is increased in obese children and adolescents,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 153, no. 1, pp. 71–75, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  59. K. Kotani, N. Satoh, and N. Satoh, “A novel oxidized low-density lipoprotein marker, serum amyloid A-LDL, is associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 204, no. 2, pp. 526–531, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  60. B. D. Johnson, K. E. Kip, and K. E. Kip, “Serum amyloid A as a predictor of coronary artery disease and cardiovascular outcome in women: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-Sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE),” Circulation, vol. 109, no. 6, pp. 726–732, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  61. M. Kosuge, T. Ebina, and T. Ebina, “Serum amyloid A is a better predictor of clinical outcomes than C-reactive protein in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes,” Circulation Journal, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 186–190, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. P. M. Ridker, C. H. Hennekens, J. E. Buring, and N. Rifai, “C-reactive protein and other markers of inflammation in the prediction of cardiovascular disease in women,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 342, no. 12, pp. 836–843, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. E. Hatanaka, P. T. Monteagudo, M. S. M. Marrocos, and A. Campa, “Interaction between serum amyloid A and leukocytes—a possible role in the progression of vascular complications in diabetes,” Immunology Letters, vol. 108, no. 2, pp. 160–166, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  64. R. Z. Yang, M. J. Lee, and M. J. Lee, “Acute-phase serum amyloid A: an inflammatory adipokine and potential link between obesity and its metabolic complications,” PLoS Medicine, vol. 3, no. 6, article e287, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. P. G. Wilson, J. C. Thompson, N. R. Webb, F. C. de Beer, V. L. King, and L. R. Tannock, “Serum amyloid A, but not C-reactive protein, stimulates vascular proteoglycan synthesis in a pro-atherogenic manner,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 173, no. 6, pp. 1902–1910, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  66. C. Song, Y. Shen, and Y. Shen, “Serum amyloid A may potentiate prothrombotic and proinflammatory events in acute coronary syndromes,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 202, no. 2, pp. 596–604, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. C. Poitou, A. Divoux, and A. Divoux, “Role of serum amyloid A in adipocyte-macrophage cross talk and adipocyte cholesterol efflux,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 94, no. 5, pp. 1810–1817, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  68. D. Brea, T. Sobrino, and T. Sobrino, “Usefulness of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A proteins as biomarkers for atherothrombotic ischemic stroke diagnosis confirmation,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 205, no. 2, pp. 561–567, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  69. S. Uurtuya, K. Kotani, H. Koibuchi, N. Taniguchi, and T. Yamada, “Serum amyloid A protein and carotid intima-media thickness in healthy young subjects,” Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 299–300, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. C. L. Carty, P. Heagerty, and P. Heagerty, “Association of genetic variation in serum amyloid-A with cardiovascular disease and interactions with IL6, IL1RN, IL1² and TNF genes in the Cardiovascular Health Study,” Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 419–430, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. K. D. O'Brien and A. Chait, “Serum amyloid A: the “other” inflammatory protein,” Current Atherosclerosis Reports, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 62–68, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. S. H. Ley, S. B. Harris, and S. B. Harris, “Adipokines and incident type 2 diabetes in an aboriginal Canadian population: the Sandy Lake Health and Diabetes Project,” Diabetes Care, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 1410–1415, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  73. K. Samaras, N. K. Botelho, D. J. Chisholm, and R. V. Lord, “Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue gene expression of serum adipokines that predict type 2 diabetes,” Obesity, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 884–889, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  74. X. Y. Ye, Y. M. Xue, J. P. Sha, C. Z. Li, and Z. J. Zhen, “Serum amyloid A attenuates cellular insulin sensitivity by increasing JNK activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes,” Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 568–575, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  75. J. L. Halaas, K. S. Gajiwala, and K. S. Gajiwala, “Weight-reducing effects of the plasma protein encoded by the obese gene,” Science, vol. 269, no. 5223, pp. 543–546, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. M. K. Badman and J. S. Flier, “The adipocyte as an active participant in energy balance and metabolism,” Gastroenterology, vol. 132, no. 6, pp. 2103–2115, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  77. K. Guo, J. E. McMinn, and J. E. McMinn, “Disruption of peripheral leptin signaling in mice results in hyperleptinemia without associated metabolic abnormalities,” Endocrinology, vol. 148, no. 8, pp. 3987–3997, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  78. M. A. Pelleymounter, M. J. Cullen, M. B. Baker, R. Hecht, D. Winters, T. Boone, and F. Collins, “Effects of the obese gene product on body weight regulation in ob/ob mice,” Science, vol. 269, no. 5223, pp. 540–543, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. I. S. Farooqi, G. Matarese, and G. Matarese, “Beneficial effects of leptin on obesity, T cell hyporesponsiveness, and neuroendocrine/metabolic dysfunction of human congenital leptin deficiency,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 110, no. 8, pp. 1093–1103, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. E. A. Oral, V. Simha, and V. Simha, “Leptin-replacement therapy for lipodystrophy,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 346, no. 8, pp. 570–578, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  81. J. D. Luo, G. S. Zhang, and M. S. Chen, “Leptin and cardiovascular diseases,” Timely Topic in Medicine, Cardiovascular Diseases, vol. 9, p. E34, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  82. M. W. Schwartz, S. C. Woods, D. Porte Jr., R. J. Seeley, and D. G. Baskin, “Central nervous system control of food intake,” Nature, vol. 404, no. 6778, pp. 661–671, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. J. S. Flier, “Obesity wars: molecular progress confronts an expanding epidemic,” Cell, vol. 116, no. 2, pp. 337–350, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. C. Buettner, E. D. Muse, and E. D. Muse, “Leptin controls adipose tissue lipogenesis via central, STAT3-independent mechanisms,” Nature Medicine, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 667–675, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  85. S. Blüher and C. S. Mantzoros, “Leptin in humans: lessons from translational research,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 89, no. 3, pp. 991S–997S, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  86. L. Ozcan, A. S. Ergin, and A. S. Ergin, “Endoplasmic reticulum stress plays a central role in development of leptin resistance,” Cell Metabolism, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 35–51, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  87. M. Rosenbaum, M. Sy, K. Pavlovich, R. L. Leibel, and J. Hirsch, “Leptin reverses weight loss-induced changes in regional neural activity responses to visual food stimuli,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 118, no. 7, pp. 2583–2591, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. I. S. Farooqi, E. Bullmore, J. Keogh, J. Gillard, S. O'Rahilly, and P. C. Fletcher, “Leptin regulates striatal regions and human eating behavior,” Science, vol. 317, no. 5843, p. 1355, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  89. R. S. Ahima, “Revisiting leptin's role in obesity and weight loss,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 118, no. 7, pp. 2380–2383, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. G. Sweeney, “Cardiovascular effects of leptin,” Nature Reviews Cardiology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 22–29, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  91. A. M. Brennan, T. Y. Li, I. Kelesidis, A. Gavrila, F. B. Hu, and C. S. Mantzoros, “Circulating leptin levels are not associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in women with diabetes: a prospective cohort study,” Diabetologia, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 1178–1185, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  92. P. Welsh, H. M. Murray, and H. M. Murray, “Leptin predicts diabetes but not cardiovascular disease: results from a large prospective study in an elderly population,” Diabetes Care, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 308–310, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  93. M. Karakas, A. Zierer, C. Herder, J. Baumert, C. Meisinger, W. Koenig, and B. Thorand, “Leptin, adiponectin, their ratio and risk of coronary heart disease: results from the MONICA/KORA Augsburg Study 1984–2002,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 209, no. 1, pp. 220–225, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  94. P. Singh, T. E. Peterson, and T. E. Peterson, “Leptin upregulates the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in human vascular endothelial cells,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 392, no. 1, pp. 47–52, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  95. S. Hongo, T. Watanabe, S. Arita, T. Kanome, H. Kageyama, S. Shioda, and A. Miyazaki, “Leptin modulates ACAT1 expression and cholesterol efflux from human macrophages,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 297, no. 2, pp. E474–E482, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  96. C. Vecchione, A. Maffei, and A. Maffei, “Leptin effect on endothelial nitric oxide is mediated through Akt-endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation pathway,” Diabetes, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 168–173, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. A. Rodríguez, A. Fortuño, J. Gómez-Ambrosi, G. Zalba, J. Díez, and G. Frühbeck, “The inhibitory effect of leptin on angiotensin II-induced vasoconstriction in vascular smooth muscle cells is mediated via a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism,” Endocrinology, vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 324–331, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  98. B. Bigalke, K. Stellos, T. Geisler, P. Seizer, V. Mozes, and M. Gawaz, “High plasma levels of adipocytokines are associated with platelet activation in patients with coronary artery disease,” Platelets, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 11–19, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  99. A. A. Fisher, S. L. Goh, W. Srikusalankul, E. N. Southcott, and M. W. Davis, “Serum leptin levels in older patients with hip fracture—impact on peri-operative myocardial injury,” The American Heart Hospital Journal, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 9–16, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  100. K. R. Mcgaffin, B. Zou, C. F. McTiernan, and C. P. O'Donnell, “Leptin attenuates cardiac apoptosis after chronic ischaemic injury,” Cardiovascular Research, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 313–324, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  101. A. Schober and C. Weber, “Editorial: leptin and EPCs in arterial injury: yes, we can!,” Circulation Research, vol. 103, no. 5, pp. 447–449, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  102. A. H. Hasty, H. Shimano, and H. Shimano, “Severe hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and atherosclerosis in mice lacking both leptin and the low density lipoprotein receptor,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 276, no. 40, pp. 37402–37408, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  103. A. M. Wallace, A. D. McMahon, C. J. Packard, A. Kelly, J. Shepherd, A. Gaw, and N. Sattar, “Plasma leptin and the risk of cardiovascular disease in the west of Scotland coronary prevention study (WOSCOPS),” Circulation, vol. 104, no. 25, pp. 3052–3056, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. Y. Matsuzawa, T. Funahashi, S. Kihara, and I. Shimomura, “Adiponectin and metabolic syndrome,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 29–33, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  105. T. Bobbert, H. Rochlitz, and H. Rochlitz, “Changes of adiponectin oligomer composition by moderate weight reduction,” Diabetes, vol. 54, no. 9, pp. 2712–2719, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. J. Capeau, “The story of adiponectin and its receptors AdipoR1 and R2: to follow,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 736–738, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  107. T. Yamauchi, Y. Nio, and Y. Nio, “Targeted disruption of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 causes abrogation of adiponectin binding and metabolic actions,” Nature Medicine, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 332–339, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  108. T. Hansen, H. Ahlström, S. Söderberg, J. Hulthe, J. Wikström, L. Lind, and L. Johansson, “Visceral adipose tissue, adiponectin levels and insulin resistance are related to atherosclerosis as assessed by whole-body magnetic resonance angiography in an elderly population,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 205, no. 1, pp. 163–167, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  109. H. Tilg and G. S. Hotamisligil, “Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: cytokine-adipokine interplay and regulation of insulin resistance,” Gastroenterology, vol. 131, no. 3, pp. 934–945, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  110. A. Stofkova, “Leptin and adiponectin: from energy and metabolic dysbalance to inflammation and autoimmunity,” Endocrine Regulations, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 157–168, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  111. I. B. Bauche, S. A. El Mkadem, and S. A. El Mkadem, “Overexpression of adiponectin targeted to adipose tissue in transgenic mice: impaired adipocyte differentiation,” Endocrinology, vol. 148, no. 4, pp. 1539–1549, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  112. S. Otabe, X. Yuan, and X. Yuan, “Overexpression of human adiponectin in transgenic mice results in suppression of fat accumulation and prevention of premature death by high-calorie diet,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 293, no. 1, pp. E210–E218, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  113. L. Qiao, C. Zou, D. R. van der Westhuyzen, and J. Shao, “Adiponectin reduces plasma triglyceride by increasing VLDL triglyceride catabolism,” Diabetes, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 1824–1833, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  114. G. Deng, Y. Long, Y.-R. Yu, and M.-R. Li, “Adiponectin directly improves endothelial dysfunction in obese rats through the AMPK-eNOS Pathway,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 165–171, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  115. J. Ran, X. Xiong, W. Liu, S. Guo, Q. Li, R. Zhang, and G. Lao, “Increased plasma adiponectin closely associates with vascular endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 177–183, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  116. A. S. Peña, D. P. Belobrajdic, E. Wiltshire, R. Gent, C. Hirte, and J. Couper, “Adiponectin relates to smooth muscle function and folate in obese children,” International Journal of Pediatric Obesity, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 185–191, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  117. K. Ohashi, J. L. Parker, and J. L. Parker, “Adiponectin promotes macrophage polarization toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 285, no. 9, pp. 6153–6160, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  118. N. Ouchi and K. Walsh, “Adiponectin as an anti-inflammatory factor,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 380, no. 1-2, pp. 24–30, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  119. V. Beauloye, F. Zech, H. T. T. Mong, P. Clapuyt, M. Maes, and S. M. Brichard, “Determinants of early atherosclerosis in obese children and adolescents,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 92, no. 8, pp. 3025–3032, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  120. N. Sattar, G. Wannamethee, and G. Wannamethee, “Adiponectin and coronary heart disease: a prospective study and meta-analysis,” Circulation, vol. 114, no. 7, pp. 623–629, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  121. R. Ouedraogo, Y. Gong, and Y. Gong, “Adiponectin deficiency increases leukocyte-endothelium interactions via upregulation of endothelial cell adhesion molecules in vivo,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 117, no. 6, pp. 1718–1726, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  122. D. M. Maahs, L. G. Ogden, and L. G. Ogden, “Low plasma adiponectin levels predict progression of coronary artery calcification,” Circulation, vol. 111, no. 6, pp. 747–753, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  123. J. L. Fargnoli, Q. Sun, D. Olenczuk, L. Qi, Y. Zhu, F. B. Hu, and C. S. Mantzoros, “Resistin is associated with biomarkers of inflammation while total and high-molecular weight adiponectin are associated with biomarkers of inflammation, insulin resistance, and endothelial function,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 162, no. 2, pp. 281–288, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  124. P. Calabro, D. W. Chang, J. T. Willerson, and E. T. H. Yeh, “Release of C-reactive protein in response to inflammatory cytokines by human adipocytes: linking obesity to vascular inflammation,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 1112–1113, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  125. C. M. Steppan, S. T. Bailey, and S. T. Bailey, “The hormone resistin links obesity to diabetes,” Nature, vol. 409, no. 6818, pp. 307–312, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  126. A. M. Kunnari, E.-R. Savolainen, O. H. Ukkola, Y. A. Kesäniemi, and M. A. Jokela, “The expression of human resistin in different leucocyte lineages is modulated by LPS and TNFα,” Regulatory Peptides, vol. 157, no. 1–3, pp. 57–63, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  127. I. Manduteanu, M. Pirvulescu, and M. Pirvulescu, “Similar effects of resistin and high glucose on P-selectin and fractalkine expression and monocyte adhesion in human endothelial cells,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 391, no. 3, pp. 1443–1448, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  128. R.-Z. Yang, Q. Huang, and Q. Huang, “Comparative studies of resistin expression and phylogenomics in human and mouse,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 310, no. 3, pp. 927–935, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. S. Verma, S.-H. Li, C.-H. Wang, P. W. M. Fedak, R.-K. Li, R. D. Weisel, and D. A. G. Mickle, “Resistin promotes endothelial cell activation: further evidence of adipokine-endothelial interaction,” Circulation, vol. 108, no. 6, pp. 736–740, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  130. P. Calabro, I. Samudio, J. T. Willerson, and E. T. H. Yeh, “Resistin promotes smooth muscle cell proliferation through activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways,” Circulation, vol. 110, no. 21, pp. 3335–3340, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  131. R. R. Banerjee, S. M. Rangwala, and S. M. Rangwala, “Regulation of fasted blood glucose by resistin,” Science, vol. 303, no. 5661, pp. 1195–1198, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  132. C. L. McTernan, P. G. McTernan, A. L. Harte, P. L. Levick, A. H. Barnett, and S. Kumar, “Resistin, central obesity, and type 2 diabetes,” Lancet, vol. 359, no. 9300, pp. 46–47, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. M. Li, A. Fisette, X.-Y. Zhao, J.-Y. Deng, J. Mi, and K. Cianflone, “Serum resistin correlates with central obesity but weakly with insulin resistance in Chinese children and adolescents,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 424–439, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  134. A. Haseeb, M. Iliyas, and M. Iliyas, “Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and their association with plasma levels of resistin and the metabolic syndrome in a South Indian population,” Journal of Biosciences, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 405–414, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. H. Asano, H. Izawa, and H. Izawa, “Plasma resistin concentration determined by common variants in the resistin gene and associated with metabolic traits in an aged Japanese population,” Diabetologia, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 234–246, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  136. J. H. Lee, J. W. Bullen Jr., V. L. Stoyneva, and C. S. Mantzoros, “Circulating resistin in lean, obese, and insulin-resistant mouse models: lack of association with insulinemia and glycemia,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 288, no. 3, pp. E625–E632, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  137. G. Valsamakis, P. G. McTernan, and P. G. McTernan, “Modest weight loss and reduction in waist circumference after medical treatment are associated with favorable changes in serum adipocytokines,” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 430–434, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. J. Vendrell, M. Broch, and M. Broch, “Resistin, adiponectin, ghrelin, leptin, and proinflammatory cytokines: relationships in obesity,” Obesity Research, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 962–971, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. B. Samal, Y. Sun, G. Stearns, C. Xie, S. Suggs, and I. McNiece, “Cloning and characterization of the cDNA encoding a novel human pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor,” Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 1431–1437, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  140. A. Fukuhara, M. Matsuda, and M. Matsuda, “Visfatin: a protein secreted by visceral fat that mimics the effects of insulin,” Science, vol. 307, no. 5708, pp. 426–430, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  141. J. R. Revollo, A. Körner, and A. Körner, “Nampt/PBEF/visfatin regulates insulin secretion in β cells as a systemic NAD biosynthetic enzyme,” Cell Metabolism, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 363–375, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  142. A. Fukuhara, M. Matsuda, and M. Matsuda, “Retraction,” Science, vol. 318, no. 5850, p. 565, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. S. H. Jia, Y. Li, J. Parodo, A. Kapus, L. Fan, O. D. Holstein, and J. C. Marshall, “Pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor inhibits neutrophil apoptosis in experimental inflammation and clinical sepsis,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 113, no. 9, pp. 1318–1327, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  144. A. R. Moschen, A. Kaser, B. Enrich, B. Mosheimer, M. Theurl, H. Niederegger, and H. Tilg, “Visfatin, an adipocytokine with proinflammatory and immunomodulating properties,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 178, no. 3, pp. 1748–1758, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. S. Kralisch, J. Klein, U. Lossner, M. Bluher, R. Paschke, M. Stumvoll, and M. Fasshauer, “Hormonal regulation of the novel adipocytokine visfatin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes,” Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 185, no. 3, pp. R1–R8, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  146. K. C. Choi, O. H. Ryu, and O. H. Ryu, “Effect of PPAR-± and -³ agonist on the expression of visfatin, adiponectin, and TNF-± in visceral fat of OLETF rats,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 336, no. 3, pp. 747–753, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  147. M. Hallschmid, H. Randeva, B. K. Tan, W. Kern, and H. Lehnert, “Relationship between cerebrospinal fluid visfatin (PBEF/Nampt) levels and adiposity in humans,” Diabetes, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 637–640, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  148. N. Rasouli and P. A. Kern, “Adipocytokines and the metabolic complications of obesity,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 93, no. 11, supplement 1, pp. s64–s73, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  149. M. Laudes, F. Oberhauser, and F. Oberhauser, “Visfatin/PBEF/Nampt and resistin expressions in circulating blood monocytes are differentially related to obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans,” Hormone and Metabolic Research, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 268–273, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  150. S.-I. Imai, “Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt): a link between NAD biology, metabolism, and diseases,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 20–28, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  151. V. Varma, A. Yao-Borengasser, and A. Yao-Borengasser, “Human visfatin expression: relationship to insulin sensitivity, intramyocellular lipids, and inflammation,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 666–672, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  152. J. Berndt, N. Klöting, and N. Klöting, “Plasma visfatin concentrations and fat depot-specific mRNA expression in humans,” Diabetes, vol. 54, no. 10, pp. 2911–2916, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  153. S. W. Liu, S. B. Qiao, J. S. Yuan, and D. Q. Liu, “Association of plasma visfatin levels with inflammation, atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in humans,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 202–207, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  154. M. Davutoglu, M. Ozkaya, E. Guler, M. Garipardic, H. Gursoy, H. Karabiber, and M. Kilinc, “Plasma visfatin concentrations in childhood obesity: relationships to insulin resistance and anthropometric indices,” Swiss Medical Weekly, vol. 139, no. 1-2, pp. 22–27, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  155. Y. Liang, X. M. Xu, H. S. Wang, and P. W. Wang, “Correlation between the expression of gastrocolic omentum visfatin mRNA and gestational diabetes mellitus,” Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi, vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 824–827, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  156. A. I. F. Blakemore, D. Meyre, and D. Meyre, “A rare variant in the visfatin gene (NAMPT/PBEF1) is associated with protection from obesity,” Obesity, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1549–1553, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  157. V. Catalán, J. Gómez-Ambrosi, A. Rodríguez et al., “Association of increased Visfatin/PBEF/NAMPT circulating concentrations and gene expression levels in peripheral blood cells with lipid metabolism and fatty liver in human morbid obesity,” Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. In press. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  158. A. Stofkova, “Resistin and visfatin: regulators of insulin sensitivity, inflammation and immunity,” Endocrine Regulations, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 25–36, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  159. T. B. Dahl, A. Yndestad, and A. Yndestad, “Increased expression of visfatin in macrophages of human unstable carotid and coronary atherosclerosis: possible role in inflammation and plaque destabilization,” Circulation, vol. 115, no. 8, pp. 972–980, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  160. K. Takebayashi, M. Suetsugu, S. Wakabayashi, Y. Aso, and T. Inukai, “Association between plasma visfatin and vascular endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 451–458, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  161. A. Garten, S. Petzold, A. Körner, S.-I. Imai, and W. Kiess, “Nampt: linking NAD biology, metabolism and cancer,” Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 130–138, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  162. T.-F. Chan, Y.-L. Chen, C.-H. Lee, F.-H. Chou, L.-C. Wu, S.-B. Jong, and E.-M. Tsai, “Decreased plasma visfatin concentrations in women with gestational diabetes mellitus,” Journal of the Society for Gynecologic Investigation, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 364–367, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  163. M.-P. Chen, F.-M. Chung, D.-M. Chang, J.C.-R. Tsai, H.-F. Huang, S.-J. Shin, and Y.-J. Lee, “Elevated plasma level of visfatin/pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 295–299, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  164. D. G. Haider, J. Pleiner, M. Francesconi, G. F. Wiesinger, M. Müller, and M. Wolzt, “Exercise training lowers plasma visfatin concentrations in patients with type 1 diabetes,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 91, no. 11, pp. 4702–4704, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  165. S.-G. Roh, S.-H. Song, K.-C. Choi, K. Katoh, V. Wittamer, M. Parmentier, and S.-I. Sasaki, “Chemerin—a new adipokine that modulates adipogenesis via its own receptor,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 362, no. 4, pp. 1013–1018, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  166. V. Wittamer, B. Bondue, A. Guillabert, G. Vassart, M. Parmentier, and D. Communi, “Neutrophil-mediated maturation of chemerin: a link between innate and adaptive immunity,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 175, no. 1, pp. 487–493, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  167. S. Parolini, A. Santoro, and A. Santoro, “The role of chemerin in the colocalization of NK and dendritic cell subsets into inflamed tissues,” Blood, vol. 109, no. 9, pp. 3625–3632, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  168. M. Lehrke, A. Becker, and A. Becker, “Chemerin is associated with markers of inflammation and components of the metabolic syndrome but does not predict coronary atherosclerosis,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 161, no. 2, pp. 339–344, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  169. L. Y. Wang, L. Wei, H. Y. Yu, Y. Zhang, and W. P. Jia, “Relationship of serum Chemerin to obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi, vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 235–238, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  170. D. Stejskal, M. Karpisek, Z. Hanulova, and M. Svestak, “Chemerin is an independent marker of the metabolic syndrome in a Caucasian population—a pilot study,” Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia, vol. 152, no. 2, pp. 217–221, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  171. X.-Y. Du, B. A. Zabel, and B. A. Zabel, “Regulation of chemerin bioactivity by plasma carboxypeptidase N, carboxypeptidase B (activated thrombin-activable fibrinolysis inhibitor), and platelets,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 284, no. 2, pp. 751–758, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  172. K. B. Goralski, T. C. McCarthy, and T. C. McCarthy, “Chemerin, a novel adipokine that regulates adipogenesis and adipocyte metabolism,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 282, no. 38, pp. 28175–28188, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  173. C. Albanesi, C. Scarponi, and C. Scarponi, “Chemerin expression marks early psoriatic skin lesions and correlates with plasmacytoid dendritic cell recruitment,” The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 206, no. 1, pp. 249–258, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  174. V. Wittamer, J.-D. Franssen, and J.-D. Franssen, “Specific recruitment of antigen-presenting cells by chemerin, a novel processed ligand from human inflammatory fluids,” The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 198, no. 7, pp. 977–985, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  175. H. John, J. Hierer, O. Haas, and W.-G. Forssmann, “Quantification of angiotensin-converting-enzyme-mediated degradation of human chemerin 145–154 in plasma by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry,” Analytical Biochemistry, vol. 362, no. 1, pp. 117–125, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  176. A. Guillabert, V. Wittamer, B. Bondue, V. Godot, V. Imbault, M. Parmentier, and D. Communi, “Role of neutrophil proteinase 3 and mast cell chymase in chemerin proteolytic regulation,” Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol. 84, no. 6, pp. 1530–1539, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  177. J. L. Cash, R. Hart, and R. Hart, “Synthetic chemerin-derived peptides suppress inflammation through ChemR23,” The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 205, no. 4, pp. 767–775, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  178. M. Takahashi, Y. Takahashi, and Y. Takahashi, “Chemerin enhances insulin signaling and potentiates insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes,” FEBS Letters, vol. 582, no. 5, pp. 573–578, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  179. K. Bozaoglu, K. Bolton, and K. Bolton, “Chemerin is a novel adipokine associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome,” Endocrinology, vol. 148, no. 10, pp. 4687–4694, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  180. L. Fontana, J. C. Eagon, M. E. Trujillo, P. E. Scherer, and S. Klein, “Visceral fat adipokine secretion is associated with systemic inflammation in obese humans,” Diabetes, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 1010–1013, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  181. T. Komiya, Y. Tanigawa, and S. Hirohashi, “Cloning of the novel gene intelectin, which is expressed in intestinal paneth cells in mice,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 251, no. 3, pp. 759–762, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  182. R.-Z. Yang, M.-J. Lee, and M.-J. Lee, “Identification of omentin as a novel depot-specific adipokine in human adipose tissue: possible role in modulating insulin action,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 290, no. 6, pp. E1253–E1261, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  183. A. Schäffler, M. Neumeier, H. Herfarth, A. Fürst, J. Schölmerich, and C. Büchler, “Genomic structure of human omentin, a new adipocytokine expressed in omental adipose tissue,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1732, no. 1–3, pp. 96–102, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  184. H.-Y. Pan, L. Guo, and Q. Li, “Changes of serum omentin-1 levels in normal subjects and in patients with impaired glucose regulation and with newly diagnosed and untreated type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 29–33, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  185. C. M. de Souza Batista, R.-Z. Yang, and R.-Z. Yang, “Omentin plasma levels and gene expression are decreased in obesity,” Diabetes, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 1655–1661, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  186. B. K. Tan, R. Adya, S. Farhatullah, K. C. Lewandowski, P. O'Hare, H. Lehnert, and H. S. Randeva, “Omentin-1, a novel adipokine, is decreased in overweight insulin-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome ex vivo in vivo regulation of omentin-1 by insulin and glucose,” Diabetes, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 801–808, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  187. D. K. Lee, S. R. George, and B. F. O'Dowd, “Unravelling the roles of the apelin system: prospective therapeutic applications in heart failure and obesity,” Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 190–194, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  188. Y. Iwanaga, Y. Kihara, H. Takenaka, and T. Kita, “Down-regulation of cardiac apelin system in hypertrophied and failing hearts: possible role of angiotensin II-angiotensin type 1 receptor system,” Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 798–806, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  189. V.-P. Ronkainen, J. J. Ronkainen, and J. J. Ronkainen, “Hypoxia inducible factor regulates the cardiac expression and secretion of apelin,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1821–1830, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  190. P. Atluri, K. J. Morine, and K. J. Morine, “Ischemic heart failure enhances endogenous myocardial apelin and APJ receptor expression,” Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 127–138, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  191. J. Zhang, C. X. Ren, and C. X. Ren, “Exercise training promotes expression of apelin and APJ of cardiovascular tissues in spontaneously hypertensive rats,” Life Sciences, vol. 79, no. 12, pp. 1153–1159, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  192. K. Higuchi, T. Masaki, and T. Masaki, “Apelin, an APJ receptor ligand, regulates body adiposity and favors the messenger ribonucleic acid expression of uncoupling proteins in mice,” Endocrinology, vol. 148, no. 6, pp. 2690–2697, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  193. Z. Zhang, B. Yu, and G.-Z. Tao, “Apelin protects against cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by glucose deprivation,” Chinese Medical Journal, vol. 122, no. 19, pp. 2360–2365, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  194. B. Telejko, M. Kuzmicki, and M. Kuzmicki, “Plasma apelin levels and apelin/APJ mRNA expression in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 176–183, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  195. P. T. Ellinor, A. F. Low, and C. A. MacRae, “Reduced apelin levels in lone atrial fibrillation,” European Heart Journal, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 222–226, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  196. K. S. Chong, R. S. Gardner, J. J. Morton, E. A. Ashley, and T. A. McDonagh, “Plasma concentrations of the novel peptide apelin are decreased in patients with chronic heart failure,” European Journal of Heart Failure, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 355–360, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  197. P. Francia, A. Salvati, and A. Salvati, “Cardiac resynchronization therapy increases plasma levels of the endogenous inotrope apelin,” European Journal of Heart Failure, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 306–309, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  198. K. Hida, J. Wada, and J. Wada, “Visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor: a unique insulin-sensitizing adipocytokine in obesity,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 102, no. 30, pp. 10610–10615, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  199. K. Kawano, T. Hirashima, S. Mori, Y. Saitoh, M. Kurosumi, and T. Natori, “Spontaneous long-term hyperglycemic rat with diabetic complications: Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) strain,” Diabetes, vol. 41, no. 11, pp. 1422–1428, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  200. N. Klöting, J. Berndt, and J. Berndt, “Vaspin gene expression in human adipose tissue: association with obesity and type 2 diabetes,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 339, no. 1, pp. 430–436, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  201. J.-K. Cho, T.-K. Han, and H.-S. Kang, “Combined effects of body mass index and cardio/respiratory fitness on serum vaspin concentrations in Korean young men,” European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 108, no. 2, pp. 347–353, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  202. B.-S. Youn, N. Klöting, and N. Klöting, “Serum vaspin concentrations in human obesity and type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 372–377, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  203. Y. Ye, X.-H. Hou, X.-P. Pan, J.-X. Lu, and W.-P. Jia, “Serum vaspin level in relation to postprandial plasma glucose concentration in subjects with diabetes,” Chinese Medical Journal, vol. 122, no. 21, pp. 2530–2533, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  204. Q. Yang, T. E. Graham, and T. E. Graham, “Serum retinol binding protein 4 contributes to insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes,” Nature, vol. 436, no. 7049, pp. 356–362, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  205. N. Mody, T. E. Graham, Y. Tsuji, Q. Yang, and B. B. Kahn, “Decreased clearance of serum retinol-binding protein and elevated levels of transthyretin in insulin-resistant ob/ob mice,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 294, no. 4, pp. E785–E793, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  206. L. Munkhtulga, S. Nagashima, and S. Nagashima, “Regulatory SNP in the RBP4 gene modified the expression in adipocytes and associated with BMI,” Obesity, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 1006–1014, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  207. J.-B. Suh, S.-M. Kim, G.-J. Cho, K.-M. Choi, J.-H. Han, and H. Taek Geun, “Elevated serum retinol-binding protein 4 is associated with insulin resistance in older women,” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 118–122, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  208. C. An, H. Wang, X. Liu, Y. Li, Y. Su, X. Gao, and W. Jiang, “Serum retinol-binding protein 4 is elevated and positively associated with insulin resistance in postmenopausal women,” Endocrine Journal, vol. 56, no. 8, pp. 987–996, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  209. K. Klein, D. Bancher-Todesca, H. Leipold et al., “Retinol-binding protein 4 in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus,” Journal of Women's Health, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 517–521, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  210. S. Gao, M. Li, Z. Wang, X. J. Zhang, H. H. Li, K. Zhang, and C. Y. Wu, “Serum levels of retinol-binding protein-4 and its association with metabolic syndrome in first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi, vol. 89, no. 30, pp. 2129–2133, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  211. C.-C. Lin, M.-M. Lai, T.-C. Li, C.-I. Li, C.-S. Liu, C.-C. Chen, and M.-T. Wu, “Relationship between serum retinol-binding protein 4 and visfatin and the metabolic syndrome,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 24–29, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  212. N. Santoro, L. Perrone, G. Cirillo, C. Brienza, A. Grandone, N. Cresta, and E. Miraglia Del Giudice, “Variations of retinol binding protein 4 levels are not associated with changes in insulin resistance during puberty,” Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 411–414, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  213. N. M. Al-Daghri, O. S. Al-Attas, M. Alokail, H. M. Draz, A. Bamakhramah, and S. Sabico, “Retinol binding protein-4 is associated with TNF-α and not insulin resistance in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease,” Disease Markers, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 135–140, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  214. P. Bobbert, A. Weithäuser, J. Andres et al., “Increased plasma retinol binding protein 4 levels in patients with inflammatory cardiomyopathy,” European Journal of Heart Failure, vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 1163–1168, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  215. M. Sasaki, T. Otani, M. Kawakami, and S.-E. Ishikawa, “Elevation of plasma retinol-binding protein 4 and reduction of plasma adiponectin in subjects with cerebral infarction,” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 527–532, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus