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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2010, Article ID 704941, 11 pages
Research Article

Preferential Th1 Cytokine Profile of Phosphoantigen-Stimulated Human Vγ9Vδ2 T Cells

1Department of Immunology and Institute of Molecular Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, St. James's Hospital, Dublin 8, Ireland
2Institute of Immunology, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, Co. Kildare, Ireland
3National Children's Research Centre, Our Lady's Hospital for Sick Children, Crumlin, Dublin 12, Ireland

Received 10 August 2010; Revised 7 December 2010; Accepted 21 December 2010

Academic Editor: Y. Mandi

Copyright © 2010 Margaret R. Dunne et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells recognise pyrophosphate-based antigens (phosphoantigens) and have multiple functions in innate and adaptive immunity, including a unique ability to activate other cells of the immune system. We used flow cytometry and ELISA to define the early cytokine profiles of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells stimulated in vitro with isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2 enyl pyrophosphate (HMB-PP) in the absence and presence of IL-2 and IL-15. We show that fresh Vγ9Vδ2 T cells produce interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) within 4 hours of stimulation with phosphoantigen, but neither IL-10, IL-13, nor IL-17 was detectable up to 72 hours under these conditions. Cytokine production was not influenced by expression or lack, thereof, of CD4 or CD8. Addition of IL-2 or IL-15 caused expansion of IFN-γ-producing Vγ9Vδ2 T cells, but did not enhance IFN-γ secretion after 24–72 hours. Thus, phosphoantigen-stimulated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells have potential as Th1-biasing adjuvants for immunotherapy.