Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 908649, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/908649
Clinical Study

Maternal Serum Levels of TNF-Alpha and IL-6 Long after Delivery in Preeclamptic and Normotensive Pregnant Women

12nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aretaieio Hospital, University of Athens, Athens, Greece
238, Seizani Str., Nea Ionia, 14231 Athens, Greece

Received 25 August 2010; Revised 3 November 2010; Accepted 23 November 2010

Academic Editor: Yvette Mandi

Copyright © 2010 N. Vitoratos et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. F. Lewis, B. J. Canzoneri, and Y. Wang, “Maternal circulating TNF-α levels are highly correlated with IL-10 levels, but not IL-6 and IL-8 levels, in women with pre-eclampsia,” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 269–274, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  2. J. C. Hauth, M. G. Ewell, and M. G. Ewell, “Pregnancy outcomes in healthy nulliparas who developed hypertension,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 24–28, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. J. J. Walker, “Pre-eclampsia,” The Lancet, vol. 356, no. 9237, pp. 1260–1265, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. F. G. Cunningham, N. F. Gant, K. J. Leveno, L. C. Gilstrap, J. C. Hauth, and K. D. Wenstrom, “Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy,” in Williams Obstetrics, pp. 567–618, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 21st edition, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  5. B. D. LaMarca, M. J. Ryan, J. S. Gilbert, S. R. Murphy, and J. P. Granger, “Inflammatory cytokines in the pathophysiology of hypertension during preeclampsia,” Current Hypertension Reports, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 480–485, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. J. Kupferminc, A. M. Peaceman, T. R. Wigton, K. A. Rehnberg, and M. L. Socol, “Tumor necrosis factor-α is elevated in plasma and amniotic fluid of patients with severe preeclampsia,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 170, no. 6, pp. 1752–1759, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  7. M. Tosun, H. Celik, B. Avci, E. Yavuz, T. Alper, and E. Malatyalioǧlu, “Maternal and umbilical serum levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α in normal pregnancies and in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia,” Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 880–886, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  8. H. Seki, K. Matuoka, H. Inooku, and S. Takeda, “TNF-α from monocyte of patients with pre-eclampsia-induced apoptosis in human trophoblast cell line,” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 408–416, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  9. J. C. Peraçoli, M. V. C. Rudge, and M. T. S. Peraçoli, “Tumor necrosis factor-alpha in gestation and puerperium of women with gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia,” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 177–185, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  10. B. Sibai, R. Romero, and R. Romero, “Maternal plasma concentrations of the soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 are increased prior to the diagnosis of preeclampsia,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 200, no. 6, pp. 630.e1–630.e8, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  11. J. S. Gilbert, M. J. Ryan, B. B. Lamarca, M. Sedeek, S. R. Murphy, and J. P. Granger, “Pathophysiology of hypertension during preeclampsia: linking placental ischemia with endothelial dysfunction,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 294, no. 2, pp. H541–H550, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  12. D. LaMarca, W. A. Bennett, B. T. Alexander, K. Cockrell, and J. P. Granger, “Hypertension produced by reductions in uterine perfusion in the pregnant rat: role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha,” Hypertension, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 1022–1025, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. R. A. Irani, Y. Zhang, and Y. Zhang, “Autoantibody-mediated angiotensin receptor activation contributes to preeclampsia through tumor necrosis factor-α signaling,” Hypertension, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 1246–1253, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  14. J. W. Meekins, P. J. McLaughlin, D. C. West, I. R. McFadyen, and P. M. Johnson, “Endothelial cell activation by tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and the development of pre-eclampsia,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 110–114, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. F. Benyo, A. Smarason, C. W. G. Redman, C. Sims, and K. P. Conrad, “Expression of inflammatory cytokines in placentas from women with preeclampsia,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 86, no. 6, pp. 2505–2512, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. Cudmore, S. Ahmad, and S. Ahmad, “Negative regulation of soluble Flt-1 and soluble endoglin release by heme oxygenase-1,” Circulation, vol. 115, no. 13, pp. 1789–1797, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  17. A. Ahmed, M. Rahman, and M. Rahman, “Induction of placental heme oxygenase-1 is protective against TNFalpha-induced cytotoxicity and promotes vessel relaxation,” Molecular Medicine, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 391–409, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. B. Borekci, H. Aksoy, R. A. Al, B. Demircan, and S. Kadanali, “Maternal serum interleukin-10, interleukin-2 and interleukin-6 in pre-eclampsia and eclampsia,” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 56–64, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  19. S. Al-Othman, A. E. Omu, F. M. E. Diejomaoh, M. Al-Yatama, and F. Al-Qattan, “Differential levels of interleukin 6 in maternal and cord sera and placenta in women with pre-eclampsia,” Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 60–65, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. National High Blood Pressure Education Programme Working Group Pediatrics, 2004; 114; iv.
  21. J. Yui, M. Garcia-Lloret, T. G. Wegmann, and L. J. Guilbert, “Cytotoxicity of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and gamma-interferon against primary human placental trophoblasts,” Placenta, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 819–835, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. B. Beutler and A. Cerami, “Cachectin (tumor necrosis factor): a macrophage hormone governing cellular metabolism and inflammatory response,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 57–66, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C. P. J. Maury, “Tumour necrosis factor—an overview,” Acta Medica Scandinavica, vol. 220, no. 5, pp. 387–394, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. Szekeres-Bartho, R. Kinsky, and G. Chaouat, “The effect of a progesterone-induced immunologic blocking factor on NK-mediated resorption,” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 105–107, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. P. B. Sehgal, G. Greininger, and G. Tosato, “Regulation of the acute phase and immune responses: interleukin-6,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 557, pp. 1–583, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  26. M. A. Guven, A. Coskun, I. E. Ertas, M. Aral, B. Zencirci, and H. Oksuz, “Association of maternal serum CRP, IL-6, TNF-α, homocysteine, folic acid and vitamin b12 levels with the severity of preeclampsia and fetal birth weight,” Hypertension in Pregnancy, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 190–200, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  27. N. M. Page, R. J. Woods, and R. J. Woods, “Excessive placental secretion of neurokinin B during the third trimester causes pre-eclampsia,” Nature, vol. 405, no. 6788, pp. 797–800, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  28. M. Cackovic, C. S. Buhimschi, and C. S. Buhimschi, “Fractional excretion of tumor necrosis factor-α in women with severe preeclampsia,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 93–100, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  29. M. Montagnana, G. Lippi, A. Albiero, G. L. Salvagno, M. Franchi, and G. C. Guidi, “Serum pro-inflammatory cytokines in physiological and pre-eclamptic pregnancies,” Gynecological Endocrinology, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 113–116, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  30. A. Malek, R. Sager, and H. Schneider, “Effect of hypoxia, oxidative stress and lipopolysaccharides on the release of prostaglandins and cytokines from human term placental explants,” Placenta, vol. 22, no. 1, supplement, pp. S45–S50, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  31. N. Hanna, I. Hanna, and I. Hanna, “Gestational age-dependent expression of IL-10 and its receptor in human placental tissues and isolated cytotrophoblasts,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 164, no. 11, pp. 5721–5728, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. C. W. G. Redman and I. L. Sargent, “Pre-eclampsia, the placenta and the maternal systemic inflammatory response—a review,” Placenta, vol. 24, pp. S21–S27, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. P. Kirwan, S. Hauguel-De Mouzon, and S. Hauguel-De Mouzon, “TNF-α is a predictor of insulin resistance in human pregnancy,” Diabetes, vol. 51, no. 7, pp. 2207–2213, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. T. H. Hung, D. S. Charnock-Jones, J. N. Skepper, and G. J. Burton, “Secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α from human placental tissues induced by hypoxia-reoxygenation causes endothelial cell activation in vitro: a potential mediator of the inflammatory response in preeclampsia,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 164, no. 3, pp. 1049–1061, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. S. W. Kauma, Y. Wang, and S. W. Walsh, “Preeclampsia is associated with decreased placental interleukin-6 production,” Journal of the Society for Gynecologic Investigation, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 614–617, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. Sharma, A. Satyam, and J. B. Sharma, “Leptin, IL-10 and inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8) in pre-eclamptic, normotensive pregnant and healthy non-pregnant women,” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 21–30, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  37. F. R. Jirik, T. J. Podor, T. Hirano, T. Kishimoto, D. J. Loskutoff, D. A. Carson, and M. Lotz, “Bacterial lipopolysaccharide and inflammatory mediators augment IL-6 secretion by human endothelial cells,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 142, no. 1, pp. 144–147, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. Y. Koçyigit, Y. Atamer, A. Atamer, A. Tuzcu, and Z. Akkus, “Changes in serum levels of leptin, cytokines and lipoprotein in pre-eclamptic and normotensive pregnant women,” Gynecological Endocrinology, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 267–273, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. F. Azizieh, R. Raghupathy, and M. Makhseed, “Maternal cytokine production patterns in women with pre-eclampsia,” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 30–37, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. Tedgui and Z. Mallat, “Anti-inflammatory mechanisms in the vascular wall,” Circulation Research, vol. 88, no. 9, pp. 877–887, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. G. T. R. Manten, M. J. Sikkema, H. A. M. Voorbij, G. H. A. Visser, H. W. Bruinse, and A. Franx, “Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women with a history of pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia or intrauterine growth restriction,” Hypertension in Pregnancy, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 39–50, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  42. C. A. Hubel, R. W. Powers, S. Snaedal, H. S. Gammill, R. B. Ness, J. M. Roberts, and R. Arngrímsson, “C-reactive protein is elevated 30 years after eclamptic pregnancy,” Hypertension, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 1499–1505, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  43. I. Craici, S. Wagner, and V. D. Garovic, “Preeclampsia and future cardiovascular risk: formal risk factor or failed stress test?” Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 249–259, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus