Table 1: Human TLRs and their cognate ligands.

TLRsLigand

TLR1triacyl lipopeptides, modulin (bacteria)
Pam3Cys-Ser-(Lys)4 (synthetic lipoprotein)
TLR2peptidoglycan, lipoprotein, lipopeptides, atypical LPS,
lipoteichoic acid, phenol-soluble modulin (bacteria)
zymozan, lipoarabinomannan (fungi)
GPI anchors, glycolipids (protozoa)
envelope protein (virus)
Pam3Cys-Ser-(Lys)4 (synthetic lipoprotein)
TLR3dsRNA (virus)
mRNA (host)
poly (I : C) (synthetic dsRNA)
TLR4LPS, lipoteichoid acid, mannuronic acid polymers (bacteria)
mannan, glucoronoxylomannan (fungi)
heat-shock protein 60, glycoinositolphospholipids (protozoa)
envelope protein, F protein (virus)
heat-shock protein 60, heat-shock protein 70, polysaccharide fragments of heparin sulfate, hyaluronic acid, fibrinogen, fibronectin DA domain (host)
TLR5flagellin (bacteria)
TLR6diacyl lipopeptide, modulin, soluble tuberculosis factor (bacteria)
TLR7ssRNA (virus)
ssRNA (host)
imidazoquinoline (synthetic antiviral compound)
loxoribine (guanosine analog)
TLR8ssRNA (virus)
ssRNA (host)
TLR9unmethylated CpG DNA (bacteria, protozoa, virus)
hemozoin (protozoa)
CpG-ODN (synthetic CpG-rich oligonucleotide)
Chromatin-IgG complex (host)
TLR10Unknown