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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2011, Article ID 103193, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/103193
Research Article

Inflammatory Mediators Release in Urine from Mice Injected with Crotalus durissus terrificus Venom

1Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos (UAEM), Calle Iztaccihuatl Esquina Leñeros, Colonia Volcanes, 62350 Cuernavaca, MOR, Mexico
2Laboratório de Parasitologia, Instituto Butantan, Avenida Vital Brasil 1500, 05555 São Paulo, SP, Brazil

Received 17 July 2011; Revised 3 September 2011; Accepted 6 September 2011

Academic Editor: Antonio Macciò

Copyright © 2011 A. Hernández Cruz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In this study, we investigated in groups of female BALB/c mice injected with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (Cdt) the renal function based on creatinine clearance, percentage of fractional excretion cytokines and histological examination of renal tissue. Cdt caused renal alterations that induced proteinuria during the initial hours post-venom and reduced creatinine clearance 15 min. up to 2 hours post-venom administration. In urine from mice injected with Cdt induced a decrease in IL-4 levels. More pronounced increments of IL-5, IL-6 and IFN-γ were observed after 15 and 30 min, respectively. The highest levels of TNF and IL-10 were observed at 1 and 4 hs, respectively. The ratios of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in animals injected with Cdt, which may be manifested in the inflammatory status during the envenoming. In groups of animals treated with Cdt were observed a decreasing in creatinine clearance and its effect on glomerular filtration rate was accompanied by decreased fractional excretion of cytokines and morphologic disturbances. This loss of change selectively in envenomation could thus explain why the relatively excretion of cytokines is reduced while of total proteins increases. In conclusion the fractional excretion of cytokines is significantly reduced in mice injected with Cdt, despite proteinuria.