Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2012, Article ID 102954, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/102954
Research Article

A Role of Fluoride on Free Radical Generation and Oxidative Stress in BV-2 Microglia Cells

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Liaoning Provincial Key Laboratory of Arsenic Biological Effect and Poisoning, School of Public Health, China Medical University, District of Heping, North Er Road No. 92, Shenyang 110001, China

Received 8 May 2012; Revised 9 July 2012; Accepted 16 July 2012

Academic Editor: Dennis Daniel Taub

Copyright © 2012 Xi Shuhua et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. Chachra, A. P. G. F. Vieira, and M. D. Grynpas, “Fluoride and mineralized tissues,” Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering, vol. 36, no. 2-3, pp. 183–223, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. L. Ozsvath, “Fluoride and environmental health: a review,” Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 59–79, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. Y. Lu, Z. R. Sun, L. N. Wu, X. Wang, W. Lu, and S. S. Liu, “Effect of high-fluoride water on intelligence in children,” Fluoride, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 74–78, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. L. B. Zhao, G. H. Liang, D. N. Zhang, and X. R. Wu, “Effect of a high fluoride water supply on children's intelligence,” Fluoride, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 190–192, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. X. S. Li, J. L. Zhi, and R. O. Gao, “Effect of fluoride exposure on intelligence in children,” Fluoride, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 189–192, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. Q. Xiang, Y. Liang, L. Chen et al., “Effect of fluoride in drinking water on children's intelligence,” Fluoride, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 84–94, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. X. Wang, Z. H. Wang, X. T. Cheng et al., “Arsenic and fluoride expose in drinking water: children's IQ and growth in Shanyin Country, Shanxi Province, China,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 115, no. 4, pp. 643–647, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. R. Niu, Z. Sun, J. Wang, Z. Cheng, and J. Wang, “Effects of fluoride and lead on locomotor behavior and expression of nissl body in brain of adult rats,” Fluoride, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 276–282, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. L. R. Chioca, I. M. Raupp, C. Da Cunha, E. M. Losso, and R. Andreatini, “Subchronic fluoride intake induces impairment in habituation and active avoidance tasks in rats,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 579, no. 1–3, pp. 196–201, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. Bhatnagar, P. Rao, S. Jain, and R. Bhatnagar, “Neurotoxicity of fluoride: neurodegeneration in hippocampus of female mice,” Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 546–554, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. P. J. Mullenix, P. K. Denbesten, A. Schunior, and W. J. Kernan, “Neurotoxicity of sodium fluoride in rats,” Neurotoxicology and Teratology, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 169–177, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. K. R. Shan, X. L. Qi, Y. G. Long, A. Nordberg, and Z. Z. Guan, “Decreased nicotinic receptors in PC12 cells and rat brains influenced by fluoride toxicity—a mechanism relating to a damage at the level in post-transcription of the receptor genes,” Toxicology, vol. 200, no. 2-3, pp. 169–177, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. I. Inkielewicz and W. Czarnowskia, “Oxidative stress parameters in rats exposed to fluoride and aspirin,” Fluoride, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 76–82, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. Q. Gao, Y. J. Liu, and Z. Z. Guan, “Oxidative stress might be a mechanism connected with the decreased α7 nicotinic receptor influenced by high-concentration of fluoride in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells,” Toxicology in Vitro, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 837–843, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. V. K. Bharti and R. S. Srivastava, “Fluoride-induced oxidative stress in rat's brain and its amelioration by buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) pineal proteins and melatonin,” Biological Trace Element Research, vol. 130, no. 2, pp. 131–140, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. P. M. Basha and N. Madhusudhan, “Pre and post natal exposure of fluoride induced oxidative macromolecular alterations in developing central nervous system of rat and amelioration by antioxidants,” Neurochemical Research, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 1017–1028, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. Krechniak and I. Inkielewicz, “Correlations between fluoride concentrations and free radical parameters in soft tissues of rats,” Fluoride, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 293–296, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. A. Butterfield, “Oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disorders,” Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, vol. 8, no. 11-12, pp. 1971–1973, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. D. F. Donnelly and J. L. Carroll, “Mitochondrial function and carotid body transduction,” High Altitude Medicine and Biology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 121–132, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. D. Lambeth, “NOX enzymes and the biology of reactive oxygen,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 181–189, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Geiszt and T. L. Leto, “The Nox family of NAD(P)H oxidases: host defense and beyond,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 279, no. 50, pp. 51715–51718, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. K. D. Barron, “The microglial cell. A historical review,” Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol. 134, supplement 1, pp. 57–68, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. G. W. Kreutzberg, “Microglia: a sensor for pathological events in the CNS,” Trends in Neurosciences, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 312–318, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. C. A. Colton and D. L. Gilbert, “Production of superoxide anions by a CNS macrophage, the microglia,” FEBS Letters, vol. 223, no. 2, pp. 284–288, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. B. Banati, J. Gehrmann, P. Schubert, and G. W. Kreutzberg, “Cytotoxicity of microglia,” Glia, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 111–118, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. Gehrmann, Y. Matsumoto, and G. W. Kreutzberg, “Microglia: intrinsic immuneffector cell of the brain,” Brain Research Reviews, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 269–287, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. H. Choi, Y. L. Da, U. K. Seung, and K. J. Byung, “Thrombin-induced oxidative stress contributes to the death of hippocampal neurons in vivo: role of microglial NADPH oxidase,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 25, no. 16, pp. 4082–4090, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. M. Bradford, “A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein dye binding,” Analytical Biochemistry, vol. 72, no. 1-2, pp. 248–254, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. G. Rothe and G. Valet, “Flow cytometric analysis of respiratory burst activity in phagocytes with hydroethidine and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin,” Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 440–448, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. P. A. Bush, N. E. Gonzalez, J. M. Griscavage, and L. J. Ignarro, “Nitric oxide synthase from cerebellum catalyzes the formation of equimolar quantities of nitric oxide and citrulline from L-arginine,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 185, no. 3, pp. 960–966, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. E. Le Belle, N. M. Orozco, A. A. Paucar et al., “Proliferative neural stem cells have high endogenous ROS levels that regulate self-renewal and neurogenesis in a PI3K/Akt-dependant manner,” Cell Stem Cell, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 59–71, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. Q. Li and J. F. Engelhardt, “Interleukin-1β induction of NFκB is partially regulated by H2O2-mediated activation of NFκB-inducing kinase,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 281, no. 3, pp. 1495–1505, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. P. Jenner, “Oxidative mechanisms in nigral cell death in Parkinson's disease,” Movement Disorders, vol. 13, supplement 1, pp. 24–34, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. H. Bouaziz, F. Croute, T. Boudawara, J. P. Soleilhavoup, and N. Zeghal, “Oxidative stress induced by fluoride in adult mice and their suckling pups,” Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 339–349, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. Y. M. Shivarajashankara, A. R. Shivashankara, S. Hanumanth Rao, and P. Gopalakrishna Bhat, “Oxidative stress in children with endemic skeletal fluorosis,” Fluoride, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 103–107, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. R. Rzeuski, D. Chlubek, and Z. Machoy, “Interactions between fluoride and biological free radical reactions,” Fluoride, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 43–45, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. Y. M. Shivarajashankara, A. R. Shivashankara, P. Gopalakrishna Bhat, and S. Hanumanth Rao, “Effect of fluoride intoxication on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant systems in rats,” Fluoride, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 108–113, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. D. Saralakumari and P. R. Rao, “Red blood cell glucose metabolism in human chronic fluoride toxicity,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 834–839, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. B. Liu and J. S. Hong, “Role of microglia in inflammation-mediated neurodegenerative diseases: mechanisms and strategies for therapeutic intervention,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 304, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. K. M. Boje and P. K. Arora, “Microglial-produced nitric oxide and reactive nitrogen oxides mediate neuronal cell death,” Brain Research, vol. 587, no. 2, pp. 250–256, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. C. C. Chao, S. Hu, T. W. Molitor, E. G. Shaskan, and P. K. Peterson, “Activated microglia mediate neuronal cell injury via a nitric oxide mechanism,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 149, no. 8, pp. 2736–2741, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. R. Dringen, “Oxidative and antioxidative potential of brain microglial cells,” Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, vol. 7, no. 9-10, pp. 1223–1233, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. A. Vezzani, R. Monhemius, P. Tutka, R. Milani, and R. Samanin, “Functional activation of somatostatin- and neuropeptide Y-containing neurons in the entorhinal cortex of chronically epileptic rats,” Neuroscience, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 551–557, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. N. Stence, M. Waite, and M. E. Dailey, “Dynamics of microglial activation: a confocal time-lapse analysis in hippocampal slices,” Glia, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 256–266, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. R. H. Hoek, S. R. Ruuls, C. A. Murphy et al., “Down-regulation of the macrophage lineage through interaction with OX2 (CD200),” Science, vol. 290, no. 5497, pp. 1768–1771, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. Boillée and D. W. Cleveland, “Revisiting oxidative damage in ALS: microglia, Nox, and mutant SOD1,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 118, no. 2, pp. 474–478, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. Patel, Q. Y. Li, L. Y. Chang, J. Crapo, and L. P. Liang, “Activation of NADPH oxidase and extracellular superoxide production in seizure-induced hippocampal damage,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 123–131, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. C. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, J. Y. Lee et al., “Reactive oxygen species and p47phox activation are essential for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced pro-inflammatory response in murine microglia,” Journal of Neuroinflammation, vol. 4, p. 27, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. N. A. Christie, A. S. Slutsky, B. A. Freeman, and A. K. Tanswell, “A critical role for thiol, but not ATP, depletion in 95% O2-mediated injury of preterm pneumocytes in vitro,” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 313, no. 1, pp. 131–138, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. Z. Gregus, T. Fekete, E. Halaszi, and C. D. Klaassen, “Lipoic acid impairs glycine conjugation of benzoic acid and renal excretion of benzoylglycine,” Drug Metabolism and Disposition, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 682–688, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. A. Bal-Price and G. C. Brown, “Inflammatory neurodegeneration mediated by nitric oxide from activated glia-inhibiting neuronal respiration, causing glutamate release and excitotoxicity,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 21, no. 17, pp. 6480–6491, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. G. C. Brown, “Mechanisms of inflammatory neurodegeneration: INOS and NADPH oxidase,” Biochemical Society Transactions, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 1119–1121, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. H. M. Gibbons and M. Dragunow, “Microglia induce neural cell death via a proximity-dependent mechanism involving nitric oxide,” Brain Research, vol. 1084, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. C. Nathan and Q. W. Xie, “Nitric oxide synthases: roles, tolls, and controls,” Cell, vol. 78, no. 6, pp. 915–918, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. C. Nathan and Q. W. Xie, “Regulation of biosynthesis of nitric oxide,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 269, no. 19, pp. 13725–13728, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. N. Shibata and M. Kobayashi, “The role for oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases,” Brain and Nerve, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 157–170, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus