Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2012, Article ID 134605, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/134605
Review Article

The Role of Macrolides in Childhood Non-Cystic Fibrosis-Related Bronchiectasis

Paediatric Pulmonology Division, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Steve Biko Academic Hospital, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0001, South Africa

Received 19 January 2012; Accepted 31 January 2012

Academic Editor: Kazuhito Asano

Copyright © 2012 R. Masekela and R. J. Green. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. T. H. Laennac, “A treatise on the disease of the chest,” in Trans New York: Library of the New York Academy of Medicine, J. Forbes, Ed., p. 78, Hafner, 1962. View at Google Scholar
  2. L. M. Reid, “Reduction in bronchial subdivision in bronchiectasis,” Thorax, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 233–247, 1950. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. Whitwell, “A study of the pathology and pathogenesis of bronchiectasis,” Thorax, vol. 7, pp. 213–239, 1952. View at Google Scholar
  4. N. A. Kothari and S. S. Kramer, “Bronchial diseases and lung aeration in children,” Journal of Thoracic Imaging, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 207–223, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. J. Cole, “Inflammation: a two-edged sword—the model of bronchiectasis,” European Journal of Respiratory Diseases, vol. 69, no. 147, pp. 6–15, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. K. W. Tsang, K. N. Chan, P. L. Ho et al., “Sputum elastase in steady-state bronchiectasis,” Chest, vol. 117, no. 2, pp. 420–426, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. B. Y. Richman-Eisenstat, P. G. Jorens, C. A. Hebert, I. Ueki, and J. A. Nadel, “Interleukin-8: an important chemoattractant in sputum of patients with chronic inflammatory airway diseases,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 264, no. 4, pp. L413–L418, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. N. Aldallal, E. E. McNaughton, L. J. Manzel et al., “Inflammatory response in airway epithelial cells isolated from patients with cystic fibrosis,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 166, no. 9, pp. 1248–1256, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. B. K. Rubin, “Mucus structure and properties in cystic fibrosis,” Paediatric Respiratory Reviews, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 4–7, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. L. Zheng, W. K. Lam, G. L. Tipoe et al., “Over expression of matrix metalloproteinases-8 and -9 in bronchiectasis airways in vivo,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 20, pp. 170–176, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  11. O. Säynäjäkangas, T. Keistinen, T. Tuuponen, and S.-L. Klvelä, “Bronchiectasis in Finland: trends in hospital treatment,” Respiratory Medicine, vol. 91, no. 7, pp. 395–398, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. P. Goeminne and L. Dupont, “Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: diagnosis and management in 21st century,” Postgraduate Medical Journal, vol. 86, no. 1018, pp. 493–501, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. C. E. Field, “Bronchiectasis. Third report on a follow-up study of medical and surgical cases from childhood,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 44, no. 237, pp. 551–561, 1969. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. R. Singleton, A. Morris, G. Redding et al., “Bronchiectasis in Alaska Native children: causes and clinical courses,” Pediatric Pulmonology, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 182–187, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. Twiss, R. Metcalfe, E. Edwards, and C. Byrnes, “New Zealand national incidence of bronchiectasis "too high" for a developed country,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 90, no. 7, pp. 737–740, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. B. Chang, K. Grimwood, E. K. Mulholland, and P. J. Torzillo, “Bronchiectasis in Indigenous children in remote Australian communities,” Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 177, no. 4, pp. 200–204, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. Doǧru, A. Nik-Ain, N. Kiper et al., “Bronchiectasis: the consequence of late diagnosis in chronic respiratory symptoms,” Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 362–365, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. F. Hayashi, T. K. Means, and A. D. Luster, “Toll-like receptors stimulate human neutrophil function,” Blood, vol. 102, no. 7, pp. 2660–2669, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. Akira, “Toll-like receptors and innate immunity,” Advances in Immunology, vol. 78, pp. 1–56, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. L. Simpson, T. V. Grissell, J. Douwes, R. J. Scott, M. J. Boyle, and P. G. Gibson, “Innate immune activation in neutrophilic asthma and bronchiectasis,” Thorax, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 211–218, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Mikami, C. G. Llewellyn-Jones, D. Bayley, S. L. Hill, and R. A. Stockley, “The chemotactic activity of sputum from patients with bronchiectasis,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 157, no. 3, pp. 723–728, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. K. W. Tsang, K. C. Tan, P. L. Ho et al., “Inhaled fluticasone in bronchiectasis: a 12 month study,” Thorax, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 239–243, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. Fuschillo, A. De Felice, and G. Balzano, “Mucosal inflammation in idiopathic bronchiectasis: cellular and molecular mechanisms,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 396–406, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. B. Chang and G. J. Redding, “Bronchiectasis,” in Kendig’s Disorders of the Respiratory Tract in Children, V. Chernick, T. F. Boat, R. W. Wilmott, and A. Bush, Eds., p. 460, Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 7th edition, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  25. W. C. Parks, C. L. Wilson, and Y. S. López-Boado, “Matrix metalloproteinases as modulators of inflammation and innate immunity,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 617–629, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. Lanone, T. Zheng, Z. Zhu et al., “Overlapping and enzyme-specific contributions of matrix metalloproteinases-9 and -12 in IL-13-induced inflammation and remodeling,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 110, no. 4, pp. 463–474, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. C. C. Taggart, C. M. Greene, T. P. Carroll, S. J. O'Neill, and N. G. McElvaney, “Elastolytic proteases: inflammation resolution and dysregulation in chronic infective lung disease,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 171, no. 10, pp. 1070–1076, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. E. Yalçin, N. Kiper, U. Özçelik et al., “Effects of claritromycin on inflammatory parameters and clinical conditions in children with bronchiectasis,” Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 49–55, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. C. Feldman, “Bronchiectasis: new approaches to diagnosis and management,” Clinics in Chest Medicine, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 535–546, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. M. R. Elkins, A. Jones, and C. van der Schans, “Positive expiratory pressure physiotherapy for airway clearance in people with cystic fibrosis,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 2, Article ID CD003147, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. P. Murray, J. L. Pentland, and A. T. Hill, “A randomised crossover trial of chest physiotherapy in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 1086–1092, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. Bush, D. Payne, S. Pike, G. Jenkins, M. O. Henke, and B. K. Rubin, “Mucus properties in children with primary ciliary dyskinesia: comparison with cystic fibrosis,” Chest, vol. 129, no. 1, pp. 118–123, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. E. O'Donnell, A. F. Barker, J. S. Ilowite, and R. B. Fick, “Treatment of idiopathic bronchiectasis with aerosolized recombinant human DNase I,” Chest, vol. 113, no. 5, pp. 1329–1334, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  34. B. Karadag, F. Karakoc, R. Ersu, A. Kut, S. Bakac, and E. Dagli, “Non-cystic-fibrosis bronchiectasis in children: a persisting problem in developing countries,” Respiration, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 233–238, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. F. Kellett, J. Redfern, and R. McL Niven, “Evaluation of nebulised hypertonic saline (7%) as an adjunct to physiotherapy in patients with stable bronchiectasis,” Respiratory Medicine, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 27–31, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. E. Daviskas, S. D. Anderson, and I. H. Young, “Effect of mannitol and repetitive coughing on the sputum properties in bronchiectasis,” Respiratory Medicine, vol. 104, no. 3, pp. 371–377, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. P. Wills and M. Greenstone, “Inhaled hyperosmolar agents for bronchiectasis,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 2, Article ID CD002996, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. N. Kapur, I. B. Masters, and A. B. Chang, “Exacerbations in noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: clinical features and investigations,” Respiratory Medicine, vol. 103, no. 11, pp. 1681–1687, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. B. K. Rubin, “Aerosolized antibiotics for non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis,” Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 71–76, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. R. Orriols, J. Roig, J. Ferrer et al., “Inhaled antibiotic therapy in non-cystic fibrosis patients with bronchiectasis and chronic bronchial infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa,” Respiratory Medicine, vol. 93, no. 7, pp. 476–480, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. P. Scheinberg and E. Shore, “A pilot study of the safety and efficacy of tobramycin solution for inhalation in patients with severe bronchiectasis,” Chest, vol. 127, no. 4, pp. 1420–1426, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. A. Martínez-García, M. Perpiñá-Tordera, P. Román-Sánchez, and J. J. Soler-Cataluña, “Inhaled steroids improve quality of life in patients with steady-state bronchiectasis,” Respiratory Medicine, vol. 100, no. 9, pp. 1623–1632, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. N. Kapur, S. Bell, J. Kolbe, and A. B. Chang, “Inhaled steroids for bronchiectasis,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 1, Article ID CD000996, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. K. Togami, S. Chono, and K. Morimoto, “Distribution characteristics of clarithromycin and azithromycin, macrolide antimicrobial agents used for treatment of respiratory infections, in lung epithelial lining fluid and alveolar macrophages,” Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition, vol. 32, pp. 389–397, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  45. M. Shinkai, M. O. Henke, and B. K. Rubin, “Macrolide antibiotics as immunomodulatory medications: proposed mechanisms of action,” Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 117, no. 3, pp. 393–405, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. L. Spector, F. H. Katz, and R. S. Farr, “Troleandomycin: effectiveness in steroid dependent asthma and bronchitis,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 367–379, 1974. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. H. Nagai, H. Shishido, R. Yoneda, E. Yamaguchi, A. Tamura, and A. Kurashima, “Long-term low-dose administration of erythromycin to patients with diffuse panbronchiolitis,” Respiration, vol. 58, no. 3-4, pp. 145–149, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J. Tredaniel, G. Zalcman, F. Gerber et al., “Diffuse panbronchiolitis: efficacy of low-dose erythromycin,” Respiratory Medicine, vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 229–230, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. N. Hoiby, “Diffuse panbronchiolitis and cystic fibrosis: east meets West,” Thorax, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 531–532, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. S. Kudoh, A. Azuma, M. Yamamoto, T. Izumi, and M. Ando, “Improvement of survival in patients with diffuse panbronchiolitis treated with low-dose erythromycin,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 157, no. 6, pp. 1829–1832, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. H. Takizawa, M. Desaki, T. Ohtoshi et al., “Erythromycin modulates IL-8 expression in normal and inflamed human bronchial epithelial cells,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 156, no. 1, pp. 266–271, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. O. A. Khair, J. L. Devalia, M. M. Abdelaziz, R. J. Sapsford, and R. J. Davies, “Effect of erythromycin on Haemophilus influenzae endotoxin-induced release of IL-6, IL-8 and sICAM-1 by cultured human bronchial epithelial cells,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 1451–1457, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. Gorrini, A. Lupi, S. Viglio et al., “Inhibition of human neutrophil elastase by erythromycin and flurythromycin, two macrolide antibiotics,” American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 492–499, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. C. Taggart, R. J. Coakley, P. Greally, G. Canny, S. J. O'Neill, and N. G. McElvaney, “Increased elastase release by CF neutrophils is mediated by tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-8,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 278, no. 1, pp. L33–L41, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. D. J. Serisier and M. L. Martin, “Long-term, low-dose erythromycin in bronchiectasis subjects with frequent infective exacerbations,” Respiratory Medicine, vol. 105, no. 6, pp. 946–949, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  56. G. A. Anwar, S. C. Bourke, G. Afolabi, P. Middleton, C. Ward, and R. M. Rutherford, “Effects of long-term low-dose azithromycin in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis,” Respiratory Medicine, vol. 102, no. 10, pp. 1494–1496, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. A. A. Cymbala, L. C. Edmonds, M. A. Bauer et al., “The disease-modifying effects of twice-weekly oral azithromycin in patients with bronchiectasis,” Treatments in Respiratory Medicine, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 117–122, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. K. W. T. Tsang, P. I. Ho, K. N. Chan et al., “A pilot study of low-dose erythromycin in bronchiectasis,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 361–364, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. Y. Y. Koh, M. H. Lee, Y. H. Sun, K. W. Sung, and J. H. Chae, “Effect of roxithromycin on airway responsiveness in children with bronchiectasis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 994–999, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. G. Davies and R. Wilson, “Prophylactic antibiotic treatment of bronchiectasis with azithromycin,” Thorax, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 540–541, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. M. Coeman, Y. Van Durme, F. Bauters et al., “Neomacrolides in the treatment of patients with severe asthma and/or bronchiectasis: a retrospective observational study,” Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 377–386, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  62. J. Eller, J. R. Lapa e Silva, L. W. Poulter, H. Lode, and P. J. Cole, “Cells and cytokines in chronic bronchial infection,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 725, pp. 331–345, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. S. Loukides, D. Bouros, G. Papatheodorou, S. Lachanis, P. Panagou, and N. M. Siafakas, “Exhaled H2O2 in steady-state bronchiectasis: relationship with cellular composition in induced sputum, spirometry, and extent and severity of disease,” Chest, vol. 121, no. 1, pp. 81–87, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. J. McCormack, “Effect of long term treatment with azithromycin on disease parameters in cystic fibrosis: a randomised trial,” Thorax, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 212–216, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. A. Equi, I. M. Balfour-Lynn, A. Bush, and M. Rosenthal, “Long term azithromycin in children with cystic fibrosis: a randomised, placebo-controlled crossover trial,” Lancet, vol. 360, no. 9338, pp. 978–984, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. L. Saiman, B. C. Marshall, N. Mayer-Hamblett et al., “Azithromycin in patients with cystic fibrosis chronically infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A randomized controlled trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 290, no. 13, pp. 1749–1756, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  67. A. Clement, A. Tamalet, E. Leroux, S. Ravilly, B. Fauroux, and J. P. Jais, “Long term effects of azithromycin in patients with cystic fibrosis: a double blind, placebo controlled trial,” Thorax, vol. 61, no. 10, pp. 895–902, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. L. Saiman, M. Anstead, N. Mayer-Hamblett et al., “Effect of azithromycin on pulmonary function in patients with cystic fibrosis uninfected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a randomized controlled trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 303, no. 17, pp. 1707–1715, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. S. Kanoh and B. K. Rubin, “Mechanisms of action and clinical application of macrolides as immunomodulatory medications,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 590–615, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. S. J. Phaff, H. A. W. M. Tiddens, H. A. Verbrugh, and A. Ott, “Macrolide resistance of Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus species associated with long-term azithromycin use in cystic fibrosis,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 741–746, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. G. A. Tramper-Stranders, T. F. W. Wolfs, A. Fleer, J. L. L. Kimpen, and C. K. Van Der Ent, “Maintenance azithromycin treatment in pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis: long-term outcomes related to macrolide resistance and pulmonary function,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 8–12, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. K. N. Olivier, D. J. Weber, R. J. Wallace et al., “Nontuberculous mycobacteria—I: multicenter prevalence study in cystic fibrosis,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 167, no. 6, pp. 828–834, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus