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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2012, Article ID 381358, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/381358
Research Article

Urinary Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Serves as a Potential Biomarker for Acute Kidney Injury in Patients with Acute Pyelonephritis

1Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
2Department of Emergency Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan 704, Taiwan
3Department of Internal Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan 704, Taiwan
4Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
5Research Center of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
6Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
7Center of Infectious Disease and Signaling Research, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan

Received 13 September 2012; Revised 30 October 2012; Accepted 6 November 2012

Academic Editor: I-Ming Jou

Copyright © 2012 Ming-Yuan Hong et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Conventional markers of kidney function that are familiar to clinicians, including the serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels, are unable to reveal genuine injury to the kidney, and their use may delay treatment. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory cytokine, and the predictive role and pathogenic mechanism of MIF deregulation during kidney infections involving acute kidney injury (AKI) are not currently known. In this study, we showed that elevated urinary MIF levels accompanied the development of AKI during kidney infection in patients with acute pyelonephritis (APN). In addition to the MIF level, the urinary levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1 were also upregulated and were positively correlated with the levels of urinary MIF. An elevated urinary MIF level, along with elevated IL-1β and KIM-1 levels, is speculated to be a potential biomarker for the presence of AKI in APN patients.