Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 786242, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/786242
Research Article

Biphasic Activation of Nuclear Factor-Kappa B in Experimental Models of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage In Vivo and In Vitro

1Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, 305 East Zhongshan Road, Jiangsu, Nanjing 210002, China
2Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Southern Medical University (Guangzhou), 305 East Zhongshan Road, Jiangsu, Nanjing 210002, China

Received 12 July 2012; Accepted 21 August 2012

Academic Editor: Dennis Daniel Taub

Copyright © 2012 Wan-Chun You et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. B. Bederson, E. Sander Connolly Jr., H. Hunt Batjer et al., “Guidelines for the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a statement for healthcare professionals from a special writing group of the Stroke Council, American Heart Association,” Stroke, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 994–1025, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. C. M. Fisher, J. P. Kistler, and J. M. Davis, “Relation of cerebral vasospasm to subarachnoid hemorrhage visualized by computerized tomographic scanning,” Neurosurgery, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. W. J. Cahill, J. H. Calvert, and J. H. Zhang, “Mechanisms of early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 1341–1353, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. Cahill and J. H. Zhang, “Subarachnoid hemorrhage: is it time for a new direction?” Stroke, vol. 40, no. 3, supplement 1, pp. S86–S87, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. Kaltschmidt, B. Kaltschmidt, and P. A. Baeuerle, “Brain synapses contain inducible forms of the transcription factor NF-κB,” Mechanisms of Development, vol. 43, no. 2-3, pp. 135–147, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. Kaltschmidt, B. Kaltschmidt, H. Neumann, H. Wekerle, and P. A. Baeuerle, “Constitutive NF-κB activity in neurons,” Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 3981–3992, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. L. Bhakar, L. L. Tannis, C. Zeindler et al., “Constitutive nuclear factor-κB activity is required for central neuron survival,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 22, no. 19, pp. 8466–8475, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. Z. H. Qin, L. Y. Tao, and X. Chen, “Dual roles of NF-κB in cell survival and implications of NF-κB inhibitors in neuroprotective therapy,” Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 1859–1872, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. S. Baldwin, “The NF-kappa B and I kappa B proteins: new discoveries and insights,” Annual Review of Immunology, vol. 14, pp. 649–683, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  10. M. Shimada, N. Satoh, and H. Yokosawa, “Involvement of Rel/NF-κB in regulation of ascidian notochord formation,” Development Growth and Differentiation, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 145–154, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. F. Weih and J. Caamaño, “Regulation of secondary lymphoid organ development by the nuclear factor-κB signal transduction pathway,” Immunological Reviews, vol. 195, pp. 91–105, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. S. Hayden and S. Ghosh, “Shared principles in NF-κB signaling,” Cell, vol. 132, no. 3, pp. 344–362, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. Karin, Y. Yamamoto, and Q. M. Wang, “The IKK NF-κB system: a treasure trove for drug development,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 17–26, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. P. Viatour, M. P. Merville, V. Bours, and A. Chariot, “Phosphorylation of NF-κB and IκB proteins: implications in cancer and inflammation,” Trends in Biochemical Sciences, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 43–52, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. W. Jin, H. Wang, W. Yan et al., “Disruption of Nrf2 enhances upregulation of nuclear factor-κB activity, proinflammatory cytokines, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in the brain after traumatic brain injury,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2008, Article ID 725174, 7 pages, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. Zhang, Y. Y. Xue, S. D. Lu et al., “Bcl-2 enhances neurogenesis and inhibits apoptosis of newborn neurons in adult rat brain following a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion,” Neurobiology of Disease, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 345–356, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. Y. Zhang, J. Liu, S. Yao et al., “Nuclear factor kappa B signaling initiates early differentiation of neural stem cells,” Stem Cells, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 510–524, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  18. F. Biscetti, G. Ghirlanda, and A. Flex, “Therapeutic potential of high mobility group box-1 in ischemic injury and tissue regeneration,” Current Vascular Pharmacology, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 677–681, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  19. S. Basu, S. Rajakaruna, and A. S. Menko, “Insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 and nuclear factor kappa B are crucial survival signals that regulate caspase-3 mediated lens epithelial cell differentiation initiation,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 287, no. 11, pp. 8384–8397, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  20. C. H. Nijboer, C. J. Heijnen, F. Groenendaal, M. J. May, F. Van Bel, and A. Kavelaars, “A dual role of the nf-kappa b pathway in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage,” Stroke, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 2578–2586, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. T. Y. Chen, M. H. Lin, W. T. Lee et al., “Nicotinamide inhibits nuclear factor-kappa B translocation after transient focal cerebral ischemia,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 532–537, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  22. C. X. Ma, W. N. Yin, B. W. Cai et al., “Toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor-kappa B signaling detected in brain after early subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Chinese Medical Journal, vol. 122, no. 13, pp. 1575–1581, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M.-L. Zhou, J. X. Shi, J. Q. Zhu et al., “Comparison between one- and two-hemorrhage models of cerebral vasospasm in rabbits,” Journal of Neuroscience Methods, vol. 159, no. 2, pp. 318–324, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. L. Zhou, J. X. Shi, C. H. Hang et al., “Potential contribution of nuclear factor-κB to cerebral vasospasm after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rabbits,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 1583–1592, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. F. Regan and D. W. Choi, “The effect of NMDA, AMPA/kainate, and calcium channeld antagonists on traumatic cortical neuronal injury in culture,” Brain Research, vol. 633, no. 1-2, pp. 236–242, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. G. J. Brewer, J. R. Torricelli, E. K. Evege, and P. J. Price, “Optimized survival of hippocampal neurons in B27-supplemented Neurobasal(TM), a new serum-free medium combination,” Journal of Neuroscience Research, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 567–576, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. B. Rogers, V. Yakopson, Z. P. Teng, Y. Guo, and R. F. Regan, “Heme oxygenase-2 knockout neurons are less vulnerable to hemoglobin toxicity,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 872–881, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. Chen-Roetling, Z. Li, and R. F. Regan, “Hemoglobin neurotoxicity is attenuated by inhibitors of the protein kinase CK2 independent of heme oxygenase activity,” Current Neurovascular Research, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 193–198, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. X. X. Dong, Y. R. Wang, S. Qin et al., “p53 Mediates autophagy activation and mitochondria dysfunction in kainic acid-induced excitotoxicity in primary striatal neurons,” Neuroscience, vol. 207, pp. 52–64, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  30. J. K. Kim, W. K. Lee, E. J. Lee et al., “Mechanism of silica- and titanium dioxide-induced cytotoxicity in alveolar macrophages,” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health A, vol. 58, no. 7, pp. 437–450, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. L. Wang, J. X. Shi, H. X. Yin, C. Y. Ma, and Q. R. Zhang, “The influence of subarachnoid hemorrhage on neurons: an animal model,” Annals of Clinical & Laboratory Science, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 79–85, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  32. W. Zhang, I. Potrovita, V. Tarabin et al., “Neuronal activation of NF-kappaB contributes to cell death in cerebral ischemia,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 30–40, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  33. F. A. Lara, S. A. Kahn, A. C. da Fonseca et al., “On the fate of extracellular hemoglobin and heme in brain,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 1109–1120, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  34. G. F. Prunell, N. A. Svendgaard, K. Alkass, and T. Mathiesen, “Inflammation in the brain after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Neurosurgery, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 1082–1091, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. J. Provencio and N. Vora, “Subarachnoid hemorrhage and inflammation: bench to bedside and back,” Seminars in Neurology, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 435–444, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. C. C. Chen, T.-H. Hung, Y.-H. Wang, W. Chii- Lin, P.-Y. Wang, and C.-Y. Lee, “Wogonin improves histological and functional outcomes, and reduces activation of TLR4/NF-kappaB signaling after experimental traumatic brain injury,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 1, Article ID e30294, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  37. S. M. Lucas, N. J. Rothwell, and R. M. Gibson, “The role of inflammation in CNS injury and disease,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 147, no. 1, supplement, pp. S232–S240, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. C. E. Downes and P. J. Crack, “Neural injury following stroke: are Toll-like receptors the link between the immune system and the CNS?” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 160, no. 8, pp. 1872–1888, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. T. Sozen, R. Tsuchiyama, Y. Hasegawa et al., “Role of interleukin-1β in early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage in mice,” Stroke, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 2519–2525, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. Nakai, Z. H. Qin, Y. Wang, and T. N. Chase, “NMDA and non-NMDA receptor-stimulated IκB-α degradation: differential effects of the caspase-3 inhibitor DEVD · CHO, ethanol and free radical scavenger OPC-14117,” Brain Research, vol. 859, no. 2, pp. 207–216, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. Pizzi, I. Sarnico, F. Boroni, A. Benetti, M. Benarese, and P. F. Spano, “Inhibition of IkappaBalpha phosphorylation prevents glutamate-induced NF-kappaB activation and neuronal cell death,” Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement, vol. 93, pp. 59–63, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  42. H. Feng, S. H. Yin, A. Z. Tang, and S. H. Tan, “Salicylate initiates apoptosis in the spiral ganglion neuron of guinea pig cochlea by activating caspase-3,” Neurochemical Research, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 1108–1115, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. M. R. Hansen, P. C. Roehm, N. Xu, and S. H. Green, “Overexpression of Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL prevents spiral ganglion neuron death and inhibits neurite growth,” Developmental Neurobiology, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 316–325, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. N. A. C. H. Brabers and H. S. L. M. Nottet, “Role of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β in HIV-associated dementia,” European Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 36, no. 7, pp. 447–458, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. Y. Zhao, S. Joshi-Barve, S. Barve, and L. H. Chen, “Eicosapentaenoic acid prevents LPS-induced TNF-α expression by preventing NF-κB activation,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 71–78, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus