Mediators of Inflammation / 2012 / Article / Fig 1

Review Article

Alternatively Activated Macrophages in Types 1 and 2 Diabetes

Figure 1

(a) In type 1 diabetes, CAMφs and autoreactive T cells are the first cells that infiltrate the islets of Langerhans and release proinflammatory cytokines and NO, which induce β cell apoptosis or necrosis; (b) the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines, AAMφ induction and PD-1/PD-ligand-dependent lymphocyte anergy induction by helminths, the antigens of which have the ability to decrease NO, as well as proinflammatory cytokine, secretion, thereby reducing insulitis and β cell death.