Figure 2: Schematic representation of SFA and TFA excess intake effects in hepatic injury, lipid metabolism, and cardiovascular risk. CE: cholesterol esterified, CETP: cholesteryl ester transfer protein, HDL: high density cholesterol, LDL: low density cholesterol, MCP-1: monocyte chemotactic protein-1, NAFLD: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, SFA: saturated fatty acids, TFA: trans fatty acids, TG: triacylglycerol, and VCAM: vascular cell adhesion molecule.