Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2013, Article ID 172986, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/172986
Review Article

Are Onconeural Antibodies a Clinical Phenomenology in Paraneoplastic Limbic Encephalitis?

1Department of Neurology, The First Bethune Hospital of Jilin University, Jilin University, Xinmin Street 71, Changchun 130021, China
2Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute, Novum, Plan 5, 141 86 Stockholm, Sweden
3Department of Neurology, The Second Part of the First Hospital, Jilin University, Lequn Street, Changchun 130021, China
4Neuroprotection Research Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
5Department of Radiotherapy, The First Bethune Hospital of Jilin University, Xinmin Street 71, Changchun 130021, China

Received 21 March 2013; Revised 31 May 2013; Accepted 4 July 2013

Academic Editor: Jessica Teeling

Copyright © 2013 Hongliang Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNSs) occur in patients with cancer and can cause clinical symptoms and signs of dysfunction of the nervous system that are not due to a local effect of the tumor or its metastases. Most of these clinical syndromes in adults are associated with lung cancer, especially small cell lung cancer (SCLC), lymphoma, and gynecological tumors. The finding of highly specific antibodies directed against onconeural antigens has revolutionized the diagnosis and promoted the understanding of these syndromes and led to the current hypothesis of an autoimmune pathophysiology. Accumulating data strongly suggested direct pathogenicity of these antibodies. The field of PNS has expanded rapidly in the past few years with the discovery of limbic encephalitis associated with glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65, the voltage (VGKC-gated potassium channel) complex, the methyl (N-NMDA-D-aspartate), alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) (B) receptors, and so forth. Despite this, the clinical spectrum of these diseases has not yet been fully investigated. The clinical importance of these conditions lies in their frequent response to immunotherapies and, less commonly, their association with distinctive tumors. This review provides an overview on the pathogenesis and diagnosis of PNS, with emphasis on the role of antibodies in limbic encephalitis.