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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 190145, 7 pages
Clinical Study

Cytokines and Chemokines as Biomarkers of Community-Acquired Bacterial Infection

1Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and Na Bulovce Hospital, Prague, CZ 180 81, Czech Republic
2Laboratory of Immunology, Wadsworth Center, NYS DOH, Albany, NY 12201-0509, USA
3Division of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Na Bulovce Hospital, Prague, CZ 180 81, Czech Republic

Received 10 January 2013; Accepted 26 March 2013

Academic Editor: Oreste Gualillo

Copyright © 2013 Michal Holub et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Routinely used biomarkers of bacterial etiology of infection, such as C-reactive protein and procalcitonin, have limited usefulness for evaluation of infections since their expression is enhanced by a number of different conditions. Therefore, several inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were analyzed with sera from patients hospitalized for moderate bacterial and viral infectious diseases. In total, 57 subjects were enrolled: 21 patients with community-acquired bacterial infections, 26 patients with viral infections, and 10 healthy subjects (control cohorts). The laboratory analyses were performed using Luminex technology, and the following molecules were examined: IL-1Ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, INF-γ, MIP-1β, and MCP-1. Bacterial etiology of infection was associated with significantly ( ) elevated serum concentrations of IL-1Ra, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α in comparison to levels observed in the sera of patients with viral infections. In the patients with bacterial infections, IL-1Ra and IL-8 demonstrated positive correlation with C-reactive protein, whereas, IL-1Ra, TNF-α, and MCP-1 correlated with procalcitonin. Furthermore, elevated levels of IL-1Ra, IL-6, and TNF-α decreased within 3 days of antibiotic therapy to levels observed in control subjects. The results show IL-1Ra as a potential useful biomarker of community-acquired bacterial infection.