Table 3: Serum cytokine and chemokine levels.

Analyte (pg/mL)Bacterial infection ( )Viral infection ( )Control subjects ( ) value

IL-1Ra 15,868 ± 12,697*4,090 ± 5,543 2,376 ± 2,563<0.001
IL-2 22.2 ± 9.3*11.2 ± 8.511,3 ± 7.20.002
IL-4 n.d.n.d.n.d.n.t.
IL-6237.4 ± 408.6*n.d.n.d.<0.001
IL-849.3 ± 75.112.5 ± 15.2 12.1 ± 15.7n.s.
TNF- 20.7 ± 17.1*3.0 ± 5.23.6 ± 8.1<0.001
MCP-1 853.3 ± 1,175#156.6 ± 104.4223.3 ± 88.70.007
MIP-1 222.1 ± 374.7+56.0 ± 37.453.4 ± 26.40.005

Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation; n.d.: not detected; n.s.: not significant; n.t.: not tested; * , bacterial versus viral infection and control; # , bacterial infection versus viral infection only; + , bacterial versus control only.