Dose-Dependent Anti-Inflammatory and Neuroprotective Effects of an ανβ3 Integrin-Binding Peptide
Electron micrograph demonstrated prevention of myelination or axons loss and inhibition of neuronal apoptosis in C16 treated rats. (a) Normal rats group (normal myelinated axons exhibited dark-rings-shaped myelin sheath surrounding axon). ((b)–(d)) Vehicle control rats at week 2 after immunization. A considerable amount of the myelin sheath displayed splitting, vacuolus, and loose and fused change, and the axon is shrunken and is dissolving ((b), (c)). The neuron showed apoptotic signs of a shrunken nucleus with condensed, fragmented, and marginated nuclear chromatin (d). At week 2 after immunization, 0.5 mg (e), 1 mg (f), and 2 mg ((g), (h))/per day C16 treated EAE rats. Some vacuolated and fused myelin sheaths were observed, but most of dark-rings-shaped myelin sheath structure has been kept ((f), (g)); the ultrastructure of neuron was still kept relatively normal (h). Visible myelin lamella cleavage, splitting, and fragmentation were detected in C16 late treated EAE rats (i). ((j)–(l)) Vehicle control rats at week 8 after immunization. Many myelin lamellae were still undergoing vesicular disintegration, but some were remyelinated; invasion of a myelin sheath by a macrophage containing myelin debris was illustrated in (k), and apoptotic neurons could be found in (l). ((m), (n)) 2 mg/per day C16 treated EAE rats at week 2 after immunization, (n) illustrating a rescued axons with a intact myelin. ((o), (p)) C16 late treated EAE rats at week 8 after immunization. More fibers were being remyelinated in these C16 treated animals, (p) showing newly formed myelin sheaths.
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