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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 343268, 8 pages
Clinical Study

Plasma Granzyme B in ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction versus Non-ST Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome: Comparisons with IL-18 and Fractalkine

1Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Abassia, Cairo 11566, Egypt
2Cardiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Abassia, Cairo 11566, Egypt

Received 18 July 2013; Accepted 12 September 2013

Academic Editor: Peter Plomgaard

Copyright © 2013 Hala O. El-Mesallamy et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objective. The proapoptotic protein, granzyme B (GZB), was identified as a contributor to the atherosclerotic plaque instability and recently as inflammatory activator. We studied the release kinetics of GZB and other markers of inflammation such as high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin 18 (IL-18), and fractalkine (FKN) in the early phase after acute cardiac events in different ACS subgroups. Methods. Thirty-six nondiabetic patients with ACS were compared to 12 control subjects. According to ACS diagnosis, the patients were classified into 22 patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and 14 patients with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction or unstable angina (NSTEMI/UA). Blood samples were taken on day 1 (day of onset) and day 3 to measure hsCRP, IL-18, FKN, and GZB by ELISA. Results. Patients with ACS showed significantly higher GZB, IL-18, and FKN levels than the controls. STEMI group showed significantly higher GZB levels than NSTEMI/UA group. On day 3, FKN levels displayed a significant decrease, while GZB levels were significantly increased. IL-18 levels were more or less constant. GZB levels were positively correlated with IL-18 ( , ) and FKN ( , ). Conclusions. Unlike IL-18 and FKN, plasma GZB may be a marker of ACS disease severity.