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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2013, Article ID 436329, 8 pages
Clinical Study

Body Mass Index: A Risk Factor for Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

1Department of Ophthalmology, Clinical Hospital Dubrava, Avenija Gojka Šuška 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2Department of Ophthalmology, University Clinic Vuk Vrhovac, Clinical Hospital Merkur, Zajčeva 19, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
3Department of Ophthalmology, General Hospital Dubrovnik, Dr. Roka Mišetića 2, 20000 Dubrovnik, Croatia
4Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, University Clinic Vuk Vrhovac, Clinical Hospital Merkur, Zajčeva 19, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
5University of Applied Sciences Velika Gorica, Zagrebačka Cesta 5, 10410 Velika Gorica, Croatia

Received 14 September 2013; Accepted 27 October 2013

Academic Editor: Katarzyna Zorena

Copyright © 2013 Snježana Kaštelan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The aim of the study was to investigate whether body mass index (BMI) independently or in correlation with other risk factors is associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) progression. The study included 545 patients with type 2 diabetes. According to DR status, they were divided into three groups: group 1 (no retinopathy; ), group 2 (mild/moderate nonproliferative DR; ), and group 3 (severe/very severe NPDR or proliferative DR; ). Patients without DR were younger than those with signs of retinopathy at time of diabetes onset whilst diabetes duration was longer in groups with severe NPDR and PDR. DR progression was correlated with diabetes duration, BMI, HbA1c, hypertension, and cholesterol. Statistical analyses showed that the progression of retinopathy increased significantly with higher BMI (gr. 1: 26.50 ± 2.70, gr. 2: 28.11 ± 3.00, gr. 3: 28.69 ± 2.50; ). We observed a significant deterioration of HbA1c and a significant increase in cholesterol and hypertension with an increase in BMI. Correlation between BMI and triglycerides was not significant. Thus, BMI in correlation with HbA1c cholesterol and hypertension appears to be associated with the progression of DR in type 2 diabetes and may serve as a predictive factor for the development of this important cause of visual loss in developed countries.