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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 523170, 8 pages
Review Article

Helicobacter pylori Infection, Chronic Inflammation, and Genomic Transformations in Gastric MALT Lymphoma

Department of Experimental Hematology, Medical University of Lodz, Ciolkowskiego 2, 93-510 Lodz , Poland

Received 4 January 2013; Accepted 11 February 2013

Academic Editor: David Bernardo Ordiz

Copyright © 2013 Magdalena Witkowska and Piotr Smolewski. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Nowadays, it is believed that the main role in the development of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma plays Helicobacter pylori infection. This world-wide distributed bacteria is in charge of most cases of not only upper gastrointestinal tract disorders but also some of extragastric problems. Constant stimulation of the immune system causes a B-lymphocytes proliferation, which is considered to be responsible for the neoplastic transformation. On the other hand, there are 10%–20% of patients who do not respond to Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment. This group has often a chromosome translocation, which suggests that there is another unknown, so far, pathogenetic mechanism of MALT lymphoma. Majority of genetic abnormalities are connected with nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway, which activates the uncontrolled proliferation of neoplastic cells. Translocations already described in studies are t(11;18)(q21;q21), which is the most common, t(14;18)(q32;q21), t(14;18)(q32;q21), and t(3;14)(p14.1;q32). This non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is an indolent type originated outside lymph nodes. In more than 50% of cases, it occurs in the stomach. Occasionally, it can be found in salivary and thyroid gland, lung, breast, bladder, skin, or any other place in the human body. This paper is a review of the current knowledge on etiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and follow-up of gastric MALT lymphoma.