Figure 1: PA induces an upregulation of IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α secretion in HaCaT keratinocytes. HaCaT keratinocytes were untreated or treated with PA (75, 100, 125, and 150 μmol/L) for 24 hours under serum-free conditions, and collected 24 hours after PA depletion. IL-6 (a), IL-1β (b), and TNF-α (c) releases were determined by ELISA kits. Results are expressed as average mean of protein concentration (pg/mL) ± SD and represent the mean of three experiments in duplicate. Asterisks (*) indicate significant differences of , respectively, between the PA-treated groups and nontreated group.