Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2013, Article ID 536435, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/536435
Research Article

Systemic Inflammatory Responses and Lung Injury following Hip Fracture Surgery Increases Susceptibility to Infection in Aged Rats

Department of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, Beijing Military General Hospital, Dongcheng District, Nanmencang No. 5, Beijing 100700, China

Received 8 June 2013; Revised 12 August 2013; Accepted 13 August 2013

Academic Editor: Amos Douvdevani

Copyright © 2013 Hao Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. Panula, H. Pihlajamäki, V. M. Mattila et al., “Mortality and cause of death in hip fracture patients aged 65 or older—a population-based study,” BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, vol. 12, article 105, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. J. W. Roche, R. T. Wenn, O. Sahota, and C. G. Moran, “Effect of comorbidities and postoperative complications on mortality after hip fracture in elderly people: prospective observational cohort study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 331, no. 7529, pp. 1374–1376, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. I.-L. Lo, C.-W. Siu, H.-F. Tse, T.-W. Lau, F. Leung, and M. Wong, “Pre-operative pulmonary assessment for patients with hip fracture,” Osteoporosis International, vol. 21, no. 4, supplement, pp. S579–S586, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. Haleem, L. Lutchman, R. Mayahi, J. E. Grice, and M. J. Parker, “Mortality following hip fracture: trends and geographical variations over the last 40 years,” Injury, vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 1157–1163, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. Hirsiger, H. P. Simmen, C. M. Werner, G. A. Wanner, and D. Rittirsch, “Danger signals activating the immune response after trauma,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2012, Article ID 315941, 10 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. S. F. Monaghan, R. K. Thakkar, D. S. Heffernan et al., “Mechanisms of indirect acute lung injury: a novel role for the coinhibitory receptor, programmed death-1,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 255, no. 1, pp. 158–164, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. Xiang, X. Shi, Y. Li et al., “Hemorrhagic shock activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in lung endothelial cells,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 187, no. 9, pp. 4809–4817, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Krzyzaniak, G. Cheadle, C. Peterson et al., “Burn-induced acute lung injury requires a functional toll-like receptor 4,” Shock, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 24–29, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. B. W. Sears, D. Volkmer, S. Yong et al., “Binge alcohol exposure modulates rodent expression of biomarkers of the immunoinflammatory response to orthopaedic trauma,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery A, vol. 93, no. 8, pp. 739–749, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. T. Sun, X. Wang, Z. Liu, X. Chen, and J. Zhang, “Plasma concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and outcome prediction in elderly hip fracture patients,” Injury, vol. 42, no. 7, pp. 707–713, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. H. J. He, Y. Wang, Y. Le et al., “Surgery upregulates high mobility group box-1 and disrupts the blood-brain barrier causing cognitive dysfunction in aged rats,” CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 994–1002, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  12. N. Simunovic, P. J. Devereaux, S. Sprague et al., “Effect of early surgery after hip fracture on mortality and complications: systematic review and meta-analysis,” Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol. 182, no. 15, pp. 1609–1616, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. C. E. Uzoigwe, H. G. Burnand, C. L. Cheesman, D. O. Aghedo, M. Faizi, and R. G. Middleton, “Early and ultra-early surgery in hip fracture patients improves survival,” Injury, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 726–729.
  14. C. L. Daugaard, H. L. Jorgensen, T. Riis, J. B. Lauritzen, B. R. Duus, and S. van der Mark, “Is mortality after hip fracture associated with surgical delay or admission during weekends and public holidays? A retrospective study of 38,020 patients,” Acta Orthopaedica, vol. 83, no. 6, pp. 609–613, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  15. S. A. Flanders, H. R. Collard, and S. Saint, “Nosocomial pneumonia: state of the science,” American Journal of Infection Control, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 84–93, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. A. Dominguez, P. J. Vithayathil, L. Khailova et al., “Epidermal growth factor improves survival and prevents intestinal injury in a murine model of pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia,” Shock, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 381–389, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. T. Muenzer, C. G. Davis, K. Chang et al., “Characterization and modulation of the immunosuppressive phase of sepsis,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 78, no. 4, pp. 1582–1592, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. Watanabe, Y. Hashimoto, E. Ochiai, A. Sato, and K. Kamei, “A simple method for confirming correct endotracheal intubation in mice,” Laboratory Animals, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 399–401, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. Deree, J. Martins, T. de Campos et al., “Pentoxifylline attenuates lung injury and modulates transcription factor activity in hemorrhagic shock,” Journal of Surgical Research, vol. 143, no. 1, pp. 99–108, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. V. Juliebø, M. Krogseth, E. Skovlund, K. Engedal, and T. B. Wyller, “Medical treatment predicts mortality after hip fracture,” Journals of Gerontology Series A, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 442–449, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. J. Donegan, A. N. Gay, K. Baldwin, E. E. Morales, J. L. Esterhai Jr., and S. Mehta, “Use of medical comorbidities to predict complications after hip fracture surgery in the elderly,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery A, vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 807–813, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. I. De Brauwer, S. Lepage, J. C. Yombi, P. Cornette, and B. Boland, “Prediction of risk of in-hospital geriatric complications in older patients with hip fracture,” Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 62–67, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  23. B. D. Crist, T. Ferguson, Y. M. Murtha, and M. A. Lee, “Surgical timing of treating injured extremities,” The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, vol. 94, no. 16, pp. 1514–1524, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  24. P. Menges, W. Kessler, C. Kloecker et al., “Surgical trauma and postoperative immune dysfunction,” European Surgical Research, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 180–186, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  25. F. Kimura, H. Shimizu, H. Yoshidome, M. Ohtsuka, and M. Miyazaki, “Immunosuppression following surgical and traumatic injury,” Surgery Today, vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 793–808, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. B. W. Sears, D. Volkmer, S. Yong et al., “Correlation of measurable serum markers of inflammation with lung levels following bilateral femur fracture in a rat model,” Journal of Inflammation Research, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 105–114, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. C. Probst, M. J. Mirzayan, P. Mommsen et al., “Systemic inflammatory effects of traumatic brain injury, femur fracture, and shock: an experimental murine polytrauma model,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2012, Article ID 136020, 7 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. M. D. Neher, S. Weckbach, M. A. Flierl, M. S. Huber-Lang, and P. F. Stahel, “Molecular mechanisms of inflammation and tissue injury after major trauma-is complement the “bad guy”?” Journal of Biomedical Science, vol. 18, no. 1, article 90, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. N. N. Choileain and H. P. Redmond, “The immunological consequences of injury,” Surgeon, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 23–31, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. K. P. Mollen, R. J. Anand, A. Tsung, J. M. Prince, R. M. Levy, and T. R. Billiar, “Emerging paradigm: toll-like receptor 4—sentinel for the detection of tissue damage,” Shock, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 430–437, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. Q. Zhang, M. Raoof, Y. Chen et al., “Circulating mitochondrial DAMPs cause inflammatory responses to injury,” Nature, vol. 464, no. 7285, pp. 104–107, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. V. Kahlke, M. K. Angele, and A. Ayala, “Immune dysfunction following trauma-haemorrhage: influence of gender and age,” Cytokine, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 69–77, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  33. I. R. Turnbull, A. T. Clark, P. E. Stromberg et al., “Effects of aging on the immunopathologic response to sepsis,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 1018–1023, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S.-C. Kang, T. Matsutani, M. A. Choudhry et al., “Are the immune responses different in middle-aged and young mice following bone fracture, tissue trauma and hemorrhage?” Cytokine, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 223–230, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. T. Matsutani, S.-C. Kang, M. Miyashita et al., “Young and middle-age associated differences in cytokeratin expression after bone fracture, tissue trauma, and hemorrhage,” American Journal of Surgery, vol. 193, no. 1, pp. 61–68, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. D. Dewar, F. A. Moore, E. E. Moore, and Z. Balogh, “Postinjury multiple organ failure,” Injury, vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 912–918, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. H.-C. Pape, D. Rixen, J. Morley et al., “Impact of the method of initial stabilization for femoral shaft fractures in patients with multiple injuries at risk for complications (borderline patients),” Annals of Surgery, vol. 246, no. 3, pp. 491–499, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. Veeravagu, B. Jiang, F. Rincon, M. Maltenfort, J. Jallo, and J. K. Ratliff, “Acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury in patients with vertebral column fracture(s) and spinal cord injury: a nationwide inpatient sample study,” Spinal Cord, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 461–465, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  39. M. Timlin, C. Condron, D. Toomey et al., “N-acetylcysteine attenuates lung injury in a rodent model of fracture,” Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 61–65, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. T. Yoshida, I. Mett, A. K. Bhunia et al., “Rtp801, a suppressor of mTOR signaling, is an essential mediator of cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary injury and emphysema,” Nature Medicine, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 767–773, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. R. P. Wenzel, A. A. Fowler III, and M. B. Edmond, “Antibiotic prevention of acute exacerbations of COPD,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 367, no. 4, pp. 340–347, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  42. G. G. Brusselle, G. F. Joos, and K. R. Bracke, “New insights into the immunology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” The Lancet, vol. 378, no. 9795, pp. 1015–1026, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus