Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2013, Article ID 619523, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/619523
Review Article

Contribution of Lung Macrophages to the Inflammatory Responses Induced by Exposure to Air Pollutants

Department of Medicine, UBC James Hogg Research Centre, St. Paul's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6Z 1Y6

Received 22 April 2013; Accepted 13 July 2013

Academic Editor: Donna-Marie McCafferty

Copyright © 2013 Kunihiko Hiraiwa and Stephan F. van Eeden. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. S. Chapman, X. He, A. E. Blair, and Q. Lan, “Improvement in household stoves and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Xuanwei, China: retrospective cohort study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 331, no. 7524, pp. 1050–1052, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. E. Hnizdo, P. A. Sullivan, K. M. Bang, and G. Wagner, “Airflow obstruction attributable to work in industry and occupation among U.S. race/ethnic groups: a study of NHANES III data,” American Journal of Industrial Medicine, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 126–135, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. Ekici, M. Ekici, E. Kurtipek et al., “Obstructive airway diseases in women exposed to biomass smoke,” Environmental Research, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 93–98, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. A. Bernstein, N. Alexis, C. Barnes et al., “Health effects of air pollution,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 114, no. 5, pp. 1116–1123, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. W. Atkinson, H. R. Anderson, J. Sunyer et al., “Acute effects of particulate air pollution on respiratory admissions: results from APHEA 2 project,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 164, no. 10, part 1, pp. 1860–1866, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. Schwartz, “Short term fluctuations in air pollution and hospital admissions of the elderly for respiratory disease,” Thorax, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 531–538, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. D. Brook, S. Rajagopalan, C. A. Pope et al., “Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: an update to the scientific statement from the american heart association,” Circulation, vol. 121, no. 21, pp. 2331–2378, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. E. Eftim, J. M. Samet, H. Janes, A. McDermott, and F. Dominici, “Fine particulate matter and mortality: a comparison of the Six Cities and American Cancer Society cohorts with a medicare cohort,” Epidemiology, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 209–216, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. A. Pope III, R. T. Burnett, G. D. Thurston et al., “Cardiovascular mortality and long-term exposure to particulate air pollution: epidemiological evidence of general pathophysiological pathways of disease,” Circulation, vol. 109, no. 1, pp. 71–77, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. K. A. Miller, D. S. Siscovick, L. Sheppard et al., “Long-term exposure to air pollution and incidence of cardiovascular events in women,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 356, no. 5, pp. 447–458, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. C. Hogg and S. Van Eeden, “Pulmonary and systemic response to atmospheric pollution,” Respirology, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 336–346, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. D. Brook, M. Jerrett, J. R. Brook, R. L. Bard, and M. M. Finkelstein, “The relationship between diabetes mellitus and traffic-related air pollution,” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 32–38, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. F. van Eeden, W. C. Tan, T. Suwa et al., “Cytokines involved in the systemic inflammatory response induced by exposure to particulate matter air pollutants (PM10),” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 164, no. 5, pp. 826–830, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. H. Mukae, J. C. Hogg, D. English, R. Vincent, and S. F. Van Eeden, “Phagocytosis of particulate air pollutants by human alveolar macrophages stimulates the bone marrow,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 279, no. 5, pp. L924–L931, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. R. J. Parod and J. D. Brain, “Immune opsonin-independent phagocytosis by pulmonary macrophages,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 136, no. 6, pp. 2041–2047, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. L. Kobzik, “Lung macrophage uptake of unopsonized environmental particulates: role of scavenger-type receptors,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 155, no. 1, pp. 367–376, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. S. Arredouani, Z. Yang, A. Imrich, Y. Ning, G. Qin, and L. Kobzik, “The macrophage scavenger receptor SR-AI/II and lung defense against pneumococci and particles,” American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 474–478, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. Palecanda, J. Paulauskis, E. Al-Mutairi et al., “Role of the scavenger receptor MARCO in alveolar macrophage binding of unopsonized environmental particles,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 189, no. 9, pp. 1497–1506, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. M. Soukup and S. Becker, “Human alveolar macrophage responses to air pollution particulates are associated with insoluble components of coarse material, including particulate endotoxin,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 171, no. 1, pp. 20–26, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. Bovallius, B. Bucht, R. Roffey, and P. Anas, “Three year investigation of the natural airborne bacterial flora at four localities in Sweden,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 847–852, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. H. Bauer, A. Kasper-Giebl, F. Zibuschka, R. Hitzenberger, G. F. Kraus, and H. Puxbaum, “Determination of the carbon content of airborne fungal spores,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 91–95, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. Becker, M. J. Fenton, and J. M. Soukup, “Involvement of microbial components and toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in cytokine responses to air pollution particles,” American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 611–618, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. E. Groves, A. E. Dart, V. Covarelli, and E. Caron, “Molecular mechanisms of phagocytic uptake in mammalian cells,” Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 65, no. 13, pp. 1957–1976, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. W. Dockery, C. A. Pope III, X. Xu et al., “An association between air pollution and mortality in six U.S. cities,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 329, no. 24, pp. 1753–1759, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. A. Sarnat, J. Schwartz, H. H. Suh, J. M. Samet, F. Dominici, and S. L. Zeger, “Fine particulate air pollution and mortality in 20 U.S. Cities,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 344, no. 16, pp. 1253–1254, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. M. Samet, F. Dominici, F. C. Curriero, I. Coursac, and S. L. Zeger, “Fine particulate air pollution and mortality in 20 U.S. cities, 1987–1994,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 343, no. 24, pp. 1742–1749, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. Stölzel, S. Breitner, J. Cyrys et al., “Daily mortality and particulate matter in different size classes in Erfurt, Germany,” Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 458–467, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. U. Franck, S. Odeh, A. Wiedensohler, B. Wehner, and O. Herbarth, “The effect of particle size on cardiovascular disorders-the smaller the worse,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 409, no. 20, pp. 4217–4221, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. Nemmar, H. Vanbilloen, M. F. Hoylaerts, P. H. M. Hoet, A. Verbruggen, and B. Nemery, “Passage of intratracheally instilled ultrafine particles from the lung into the systemic circulation in hamster,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 164, no. 9, pp. 1665–1668, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. Nemmar, P. H. M. Hoet, B. Vanquickenborne et al., “Passage of inhaled particles into the blood circulation in humans,” Circulation, vol. 105, no. 4, pp. 411–414, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. Y. T. Huang, Z. Li, S. D. Harder, and J. M. Soukup, “Apoptotic and inflammatory effects induced by different particles in human alveolar macrophages,” Inhalation Toxicology, vol. 16, no. 14, pp. 863–878, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. N. Doshi and S. Mitragotri, “Macrophages recognize size and shape of their targets,” PLoS ONE, vol. 5, no. 4, Article ID e10051, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. L. Huang, W. L. Cheng, C. T. Lee, H. C. Huang, and C. C. Chan, “Contribution of endotoxin in macrophage cytokine response to ambient particles in vitro,” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health A, vol. 65, no. 17, pp. 1261–1272, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. C. Monn and S. Becker, “Cytotoxicity and induction of proinflammatory cytokines from human monocytes exposed to fine (PM2.5) and coarse particles (PM10-2.5) in outdoor and indoor air,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 155, no. 3, pp. 245–252, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. R. P. F. Schins, J. H. Lightbody, P. J. A. Borm, T. Shi, K. Donaldson, and V. Stone, “Inflammatory effects of coarse and fine particulate matter in relation to chemical and biological constituents,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 195, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. U. P. Kodavanti, R. Mebane, A. Ledbetter et al., “Variable pulmonary responses from exposure to concentrated ambient air particles in a rat model of bronchitis,” Toxicological Sciences, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 441–451, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. T. S. Hiura, M. P. Kaszubowski, N. Li, and A. E. Nel, “Chemicals in diesel exhaust particles generate reactive oxygen radicals and induce apoptosis in macrophages,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 163, no. 10, pp. 5582–5591, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. D. Diaz-Sanchez, “The role of diesel exhaust particles and their associated polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the induction of allergic airway disease,” Allergy, vol. 52, supplement 38, pp. 52–58, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. R. Molinelli, M. C. Madden, J. K. McGee, J. G. Stonehuerner, and A. J. Ghio, “Effect of metal removal on the toxicity of airborne particulate matter from the Utah valley,” Inhalation Toxicology, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 1069–1086, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. M. Soukup, A. J. Ghio, and S. Becker, “Soluble components of Utah Valley particulate pollution alter alveolar macrophage function in vivo and in vitro,” Inhalation Toxicology, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 401–414, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. Refsnes, R. B. Hetland, J. Øvrevik, I. Sundfør, P. E. Schwarze, and M. Låg, “Different particle determinants induce apoptosis and cytokine release in primary alveolar macrophage cultures,” Particle and Fibre Toxicology, vol. 3, p. 10, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. R. M. Kafoury, W. A. Pryor, G. L. Squadrito, M. G. Salgo, X. Zou, and M. Friedman, “Induction of inflammatory mediators in human airway epithelial cells by lipid ozonation products,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 160, no. 6, pp. 1934–1942, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. M. Longphre, L.-Y. Zhang, J. R. Harkema, and S. R. Kleeberger, “Ozone-induced pulmonary inflammation and epithelial proliferation are partially mediated by PAF,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 341–349, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. P. DeLorme, H. Yang, C. Elbon-Copp, X. Gao, H. Barraclough-Mitchell, and D. J. P. Bassett, “Hyperresponsive airways correlate with lung tissue inflammatory cell changes in ozone-exposed rats,” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health A, vol. 65, no. 19, pp. 1453–1470, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. J. G. Wagner, S. J. Van Dyken, J. R. Wierenga, J. A. Hotchkiss, and J. R. Harkema, “Ozone exposure enhances endotoxin-induced mucous cell metaplasia in rat pulmonary airways,” Toxicological Sciences, vol. 74, no. 2, pp. 437–446, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. R. B. Devlin, K. P. McKinnon, T. Noah, S. Becker, and H. S. Koren, “Ozone-induced release of cytokines and fibronectin by alveolar macrophages and airway epithelial cells,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 266, no. 6, part 1, pp. L612–L619, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. Arjomandi, A. Witten, E. Abbritti et al., “Repeated exposure to ozone increases alveolar macrophage recruitment into asthmatic airways,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 172, no. 4, pp. 427–432, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. B. Vagaggini, M. Taccola, S. Cianchetti et al., “Ozone exposure increases eosinophilic airway response induced by previous allergen challenge,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 166, no. 8, pp. 1073–1077, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. P. J. Koken, W. T. Piver, F. Ye, A. Elixhauser, L. M. Olsen, and C. J. Portier, “Temperature, air pollution, and hospitalization for cardiovascular diseases among elderly people in Denver,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 111, no. 10, pp. 1312–1317, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. S. Tsai, W. B. Goggins, H. Chiu, and C. Yang, “Evidence for an association between air pollution and daily stroke admissions in Kaohsiung, Taiwan,” Stroke, vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 2612–2616, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. S. M. Tarlo, I. Broder, P. Corey et al., “The role of symptomatic colds in asthma exacerbations: influence of outdoor allergens and air pollutants,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 108, no. 1, pp. 52–58, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. E. Koike, T. Kobayashi, and R. Utsunomiya, “Effect of exposure to nitrogen dioxide on alveolar macrophage-mediated immunosuppressive activity in rats,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 121, no. 2, pp. 135–143, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. G. J. Jakab, R. W. Clarke, D. R. Hemenway, M. V. Longphre, S. R. Kleeberger, and R. Frank, “Inhalation of acid coated carbon black particles impairs alveolar macrophage phagocytosis,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 88, no. 1–3, pp. 243–248, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. T. Fujii, S. Hayashi, J. C. Hogg et al., “Interaction of alveolar macrophages and airway epithelial cells following exposure to particulate matter produces mediators that stimulate the bone marrow,” American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 34–41, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. X. J. Yin, J. Y. C. Ma, J. M. Antonini, V. Castranova, and J. K. H. Ma, “Roles of reactive oxygen species and heme oxygenase-1 in modulation of alveolar macrophage-mediated pulmonary immune responses to Listeria monocytogenes by diesel exhaust particles,” Toxicological Sciences, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 143–153, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. S. F. van Eeden and J. C. Hogg, “Systemic inflammatory response induced by particulate matter air pollution: the importance of bone-marrow stimulation,” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health A, vol. 65, no. 20, pp. 1597–1613, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. T. Terashima, B. Wiggs, D. English, J. C. Hogg, and S. F. Van Eeden, “Phagocytosis of small carbon particles (PM10) by alveolar macrophages stimulates the release of polymorphonuclear leukocytes from bone marrow,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 155, no. 4, pp. 1441–1447, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. H. Mukae, R. Vincent, K. Quinlan et al., “The effect of repeated exposure to particulate air pollution (PM10) on the bone marrow,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 163, no. 1, pp. 201–209, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. S. Gordon and P. R. Taylor, “Monocyte and macrophage heterogeneity,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 953–964, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. S. Gordon, “Alternative activation of macrophages,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 23–35, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  61. A. Mantovani, A. Sica, S. Sozzani, P. Allavena, A. Vecchi, and M. Locati, “The chemokine system in diverse forms of macrophage activation and polarization,” Trends in Immunology, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 677–686, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. R. Shaykhiev, A. Krause, J. Salit et al., “Smoking-dependent reprogramming of alveolar macrophage polarization: implication for pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 183, no. 4, pp. 2867–2883, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. M. He, T. Ichinose, S. Yoshida et al., “Urban particulate matter in Beijing, China, enhances allergen-induced murine lung eosinophilia,” Inhalation Toxicology, vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 709–718, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. E. J. Park, J. Roh, Y. Kim, K. Park, D. Kim, and S. Yu, “PM 2.5 collected in a residential area induced Th1-type inflammatory responses with oxidative stress in mice,” Environmental Research, vol. 111, no. 3, pp. 348–355, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. K. Yoshizaki, J. M. Brito, A. C. Toledo et al., “Subchronic effects of nasally instilled diesel exhaust particulates on the nasal and airway epithelia in mice,” Inhalation Toxicology, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 610–617, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. R. J. Snelgrove, J. Goulding, A. M. Didierlaurent et al., “A critical function for CD200 in lung immune homeostasis and the severity of influenza infection,” Nature Immunology, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 1074–1083, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. J. Murphy, R. Summer, A. A. Wilson, D. N. Kotton, and A. Fine, “The prolonged life-span of alveolar macrophages,” American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 380–385, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. H. Perlman, L. J. Pagliari, C. Georganas, T. Mano, K. Walsh, and R. M. Pope, “FLICE-inhibitory protein expression during macrophage differentiation confers resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 190, no. 11, pp. 1679–1688, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. S. H. Ling, J. E. McDonough, J. V. Gosselink et al., “Patterns of retention of particulate matter in lung tissues of patients with COPD: potential role in disease progression,” Chest, vol. 140, no. 6, pp. 1540–1549, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. A. C. Kirby, M. C. Coles, and P. M. Kaye, “Alveolar macrophages transport pathogens to lung draining lymph nodes,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 183, no. 3, pp. 1983–1989, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. C. J. Obot, M. T. Morandi, T. P. Beebe Jr., R. F. Hamilton, and A. Holian, “Surface components of airborne particulate matter induce macrophage apoptosis through scavenger receptors,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 184, no. 2, pp. 98–106, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. P. M. Henson, D. L. Bratton, and V. A. Fadok, “Apoptotic cell removal,” Current Biology, vol. 11, no. 19, pp. R795–R805, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. R. Miyata, N. Bai, R. Vincent, D. D. Sin, and S. F. Van Eeden, “Novel properties of statins: suppression of the systemic and bone marrow responses induced by exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM10) air pollution,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 303, no. 6, pp. L492–L499, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  74. S. T. Stern, P. P. Adiseshaiah, and R. M. Crist, “Autophagy and lysosomal dysfunction as emerging mechanisms of nanomaterial toxicity,” Particle and Fibre Toxicology, vol. 9, p. 20, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  75. M. M. Monick, L. S. Powers, K. Walters et al., “Identification of an autophagy defect in smokers' alveolar macrophages,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 185, no. 9, pp. 5425–5435, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. T. Fujii, S. Hayashi, J. C. Hogg, R. Vincent, and S. F. Van Eeden, “Particulate matter induces cytokine expression in human bronchial epithelial cells,” American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 265–271, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. J. A. Hirota, S. A. Hirota, S. M. Warner et al., “The airway epithelium nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat protein 3 inflammasome is activated by urban particulate matter,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 129, no. 4, pp. 1116–1125, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. C. von Garnier, L. Filgueira, M. Wikstrom et al., “Anatomical location determines the distribution and function of dendritic cells and other APCs in the respiratory tract,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 175, no. 3, pp. 1609–1618, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. N. E. Alexis, J. C. Lay, K. Zeman et al., “Biological material on inhaled coarse fraction particulate matter activates airway phagocytes in vivo in healthy volunteers,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 117, no. 6, pp. 1396–1403, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. C. de Haar, M. Kool, I. Hassing, M. Bol, B. N. Lambrecht, and R. Pieters, “Lung dendritic cells are stimulated by ultrafine particles and play a key role in particle adjuvant activity,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 121, no. 5, pp. 1246–1254, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. S. F. van Eeden, A. Yeung, K. Quinlam, and J. C. Hogg, “Systemic response to ambient particulate matter: relevance to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 61–67, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  82. K. Sawyer, S. Mundandhara, A. J. Ghio, and M. C. Madden, “The effects of ambient particulate matter on human alveolar macrophage oxidative and inflammatory responses,” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health A, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 41–57, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. W. C. Tan, D. Qiu, B. L. Liam et al., “The human bone marrow response to acute air pollution caused by forest fires,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 161, no. 4, pp. 1213–1217, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. T. Kido, E. Tamagawa, N. Bai et al., “Particulate matter induces translocation of IL-6 from the lung to the systemic circulation,” American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 197–204, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. Y. Goto, H. Ishii, J. C. Hogg et al., “Particulate matter air pollution stimulates monocyte release from the bone marrow,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 170, no. 8, pp. 891–897, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. T. Suwa, J. C. Hogg, D. English, and S. F. Van Eeden, “Interleukin-6 induces demargination of intravascular neutrophils and shortens their transit in marrow,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 279, no. 6, pp. H2954–H2960, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. N. Bai, T. Kido, H. Suzuki et al., “Changes in atherosclerotic plaques induced by inhalation of diesel exhaust,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 216, no. 2, pp. 299–306, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. L. Clancy, P. Goodman, H. Sinclair, and D. W. Dockery, “Effect of air-pollution control on death rates in Dublin, Ireland: an intervention study,” The Lancet, vol. 360, no. 9341, pp. 1210–1214, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. F. Forastiere, M. Stafoggia, S. Picciotto et al., “A case-crossover analysis of out-of-hospital coronary deaths and air pollution in Rome, Italy,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 172, no. 12, pp. 1549–1555, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. B. Ostro, R. Broadwin, S. Green, W. Feng, and M. Lipsett, “Fine particulate air pollution and mortality in nine California counties: results from CALFINE,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 114, no. 1, pp. 29–33, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. K. L. Timonen, E. Vanninen, J. De Hartog et al., “Effects of ultrafine and fine particulate and gaseous air pollution on cardiac autonomic control in subjects with coronary artery disease: the ULTRA study,” Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 332–341, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. A. Peters, D. W. Dockery, J. E. Muller, and M. A. Mittleman, “Increased particulate air pollution and the triggering of myocardial infarction,” Circulation, vol. 103, no. 23, pp. 2810–2815, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. J. Sullivan, L. Sheppard, A. Schreuder, N. Ishikawa, D. Siscovick, and J. Kaufman, “Relation between short-term fine-particulate matter exposure and onset of myocardial infarction,” Epidemiology, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 41–48, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. A. Seaton, W. MacNee, K. Donaldson, and D. Godden, “Particulate air pollution and acute health effects,” The Lancet, vol. 345, no. 8943, pp. 176–178, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. T. Suwa, J. Hogg, K. Quinlan, A. Ohgami, R. Vincent, and S. F. Van Eeden, “Particulate air pollution induces progression of atherosclerosis,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 935–942, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. Q. Sun, P. Yue, Z. Ying et al., “Air pollution exposure potentiates hypertension through reactive oxygen species-mediated activation of Rho/ROCK,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 1760–1766, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. P. M. Ridker, N. Rifai, M. J. Stampfer, and C. H. Hennekens, “Plasma concentration of interleukin-6 and the risk of future myocardial infarction among apparently healthy men,” Circulation, vol. 101, no. 15, pp. 1767–1772, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. E. Tamagawa, N. Bai, K. Morimoto et al., “Particulate matter exposure induces persistent lung inflammation and endothelial dysfunction,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 295, no. 1, pp. L79–L85, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. F. Sava and C. Carlsten, “Respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution: an update,” Clinics in Chest Medicine, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 759–769, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  100. F. D. Gilliland, Y. Li, A. Saxon, and D. Diaz-Sanchez, “Effect of glutathione-S-transferase M1 and P1 genotypes on xenobiotic enhancement of allergic responses: randomised, placebo-controlled crossover study,” The Lancet, vol. 363, no. 9403, pp. 119–125, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. C. Carlsten, A. Dybuncio, A. Becker, M. Chan-Yeung, and M. Brauer, “GSTP1 polymorphism modifies risk for incident asthma associated with nitrogen dioxide in a high-risk birth cohort,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 68, no. 4, p. 308, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. M. Kerkhof, D. S. Postma, B. Brunekreef et al., “Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 genes influence susceptibility to adverse effects of traffic-related air pollution on childhood asthma,” Thorax, vol. 65, no. 8, pp. 690–697, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. A. Baccarelli, R. O. Wright, V. Bollati et al., “Rapid DNA methylation changes after exposure to traffic particles,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 179, no. 7, pp. 572–578, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. J. Madrigano, A. Baccarelli, M. A. Mittleman et al., “Prolonged exposure to particulate pollution, genes associated with glutathione pathways, and DNA methylation in a cohort of older men,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 119, no. 7, pp. 977–982, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. H. Ji and G. K. Khurana Hershey, “Genetic and epigenetic influence on the response to environmental particulate matter,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 129, no. 1, pp. 33–41, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. L. Tarantini, M. Bonzini, P. Apostoli et al., “Effects of particulate matter on genomic DNA methylation content and iNOS promoter methylation,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 117, no. 2, pp. 217–222, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. S. Soberanes, A. Gonzalez, D. Urich et al., “Particulate matter air pollution induces hypermethylation of the p16 promoter Via a mitochondrial ROS-JNK-DNMT1 pathway,” Scientific Reports, vol. 2, p. 275, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus