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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 648268, 18 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/648268
Review Article

Neurovascular Unit in Chronic Pain

1Department of Neurological, Neuropsychological, Morphological and Movement Sciences, Section of Anatomy and Histology, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 8, 37134 Verona, Italy
2Department of Anatomy, Animal Physiology and Biophysics, Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, 050095 Bucharest, Romania
3IRCCS Centro Neurolesi “Bonino-Pulejo”, 98124 Messina, Italy
4Department of Life and Environmental Physics, “Horia Hulubei” National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele, Romania

Received 14 March 2013; Accepted 8 May 2013

Academic Editor: Gila Moalem-Taylor

Copyright © 2013 Beatrice Mihaela Radu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Chronic pain is a debilitating condition with major socioeconomic impact, whose neurobiological basis is still not clear. An involvement of the neurovascular unit (NVU) has been recently proposed. In particular, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB), two NVU key players, may be affected during the development of chronic pain; in particular, transient permeabilization of the barrier is suggested by several inflammatory- and nerve-injury-based pain models, and we argue that the clarification of molecular BBB/BSCB permeabilization events will shed new light in understanding chronic pain mechanisms. Possible biases in experiments supporting this theory and its translational potentials are discussed. Moving beyond an exclusive focus on the role of the endothelium, we propose that our understanding of the mechanisms subserving chronic pain will benefit from the extension of research efforts to the NVU as a whole. In this view, the available evidence on the interaction between analgesic drugs and the NVU is here reviewed. Chronic pain comorbidities, such as neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, are also discussed in view of NVU changes, together with innovative pharmacological solutions targeting NVU components in chronic pain treatment.