Mediators of Inflammation / 2013 / Article / Fig 2

Clinical Study

Expression of Inflammation-Related Genes Is Altered in Gastric Tissue of Patients with Advanced Stages of NAFLD

Figure 2

Inflammation-related genes in stomach and obesity-associated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In obesity, increased levels of inflammatory molecules such as IL1F8 may alter gene expression in stomach by activating nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF- B). NF- B is known to activate gene expression of a number of downstream inflammatory molecules including CCL4, IL8, and CCL21. These inflammatory molecules may then regulate their own expression in positive feedback loop, thus further exacerbating inflammatory profile. These molecules can potentially activate local immune cells and attract additional immune cells. Oxidative stress triggered by activated immune cells can further add to existing inflammation. The entry of secreted inflammatory molecules and activated immune cells into portal circulation may contribute to NAFLD.