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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2013, Article ID 701970, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/701970
Review Article

Development and Treatments of Inflammatory Cells and Cytokines in Spinal Cord Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

1Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, 106 Zhongshan Er Road, Guangzhou 510100, China
2National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, 2-10-1 Okura, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157-8535, Japan
3National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan

Received 30 April 2013; Accepted 24 June 2013

Academic Editor: Geeta Ramesh

Copyright © 2013 Ping Zhu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

During aortic surgery, interruption of spinal cord blood flow might cause spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). The incidence of spinal cord IRI after aortic surgery is up to 28%, and patients with spinal cord IRI might suffer from postoperative paraplegia or paraparesis. Spinal cord IRI includes two phases. The immediate spinal cord injury is related to acute ischemia. And the delayed spinal cord injury involves both ischemic cellular death and reperfusion injury. Inflammation is a subsequent event of spinal cord ischemia and possibly a major contributor to spinal cord IRI. However, the development of inflammatory mediators is incompletely demonstrated. And treatments available for inflammation in spinal cord IRI are insufficient. Improved understanding about spinal cord IRI and the development of inflammatory cells and cytokines in this process will provide novel therapeutic strategies for spinal cord IRI. Inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-α and IL-1) may play an important role in spinal cord IRI. For treatment of several intractable autoimmune diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis), where inflammatory cytokines are involved in disease progression, anti-inflammatory cytokine antagonist is now available. Hence, there is great potential of anti-inflammatory cytokine antagonist for therapeutic use of spinal cord IRI. We here review the mediators and several possibilities of treatment in spinal cord IRI.