Figure 3: ASP induces proinflammatory effects in vivo. Relative plasma levels, adipose tissue, and liver mRNA content of several cytokines are shown in (a), for mice that were injected with ASP as compared to controls (PBS as vehicle). For the same animals, relative mRNA levels of total macrophages marker (F4/80), M1 macrophages marker (CD11c), and M2 macrophage marker (CD163) within adipose tissue, liver, and muscle are shown in (b). Results are expressed as relative concentration or expression compared with controls (vehicle) which are set as 1.0. Results are expressed as mean ± SEM where differences versus controls are expressed as , , , and , with = 7-8 per group.