Regulatory Role of GSK-3β on NF-κB, Nitric Oxide, and TNF-α in Group A Streptococcal Infection
GSK-3β is activated in macrophages after stimulation by NZ131 and inhibiting GSK-3β reduces iNOS expression and NO production. (a) Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of phospho-GSK-3β at Ser9 in RAW 264.7 cells (MOI: 10) at the indicated time points. (b) After pretreatment with various GSK-3β inhibitors (LiCl, SB216763, SB415286, and BIO), Western blot analysis was used to determine the expression of iNOS in RAW 264.7 cells at 6 h after NZ131 infection. (c) After NZ131 stimulation (24 h, MOI: 10), Griess reagent was used to determine the NO production in RAW 264.7 cells pretreated with GSK-3β inhibitors (LiCl and BIO). (d) Percentage of cell viability was determined 24 h after NZ131 infection with or without concomitant treatment with GSK-3β inhibitors (LiCl and BIO). The data are means ± SD of the results obtained from three individual experiments. *, **; ***, comparisons between the indicated groups.