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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 895975, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/895975
Research Article

JNK and NADPH Oxidase Involved in Fluoride-Induced Oxidative Stress in BV-2 Microglia Cells

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Liaoning Province Key Lab of Arsenic Biological Effect and Poisoning, School of Public Health, China Medical University, District of Heping, No. 92 North Er Road, Shenyang, 110001, China

Received 11 February 2013; Revised 8 July 2013; Accepted 11 July 2013

Academic Editor: Muzamil Ahmad

Copyright © 2013 Ling Yan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Excessive fluoride may cause central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction, and oxidative stress is a recognized mode of action of fluoride toxicity. In CNS, activated microglial cells can release more reactive oxygen species (ROS), and NADPH oxidase (NOX) is the major enzyme for the production of extracellular superoxide in microglia. ROS have been characterized as an important secondary messenger and modulator for various mammalian intracellular signaling pathways, including the MAPK pathways. In this study we examined ROS production and TNF-α, IL-1β inflammatory cytokines releasing, and the expression of MAPKs in BV-2 microglia cells treated with fluoride. We found that fluoride increased JNK phosphorylation level of BV-2 cells and pretreatment with JNK inhibitor SP600125 markedly reduced the levels of intracellular and NO. NOX inhibitor apocynin and iNOS inhibitor SMT dramatically decreased NaF-induced ROS and NO generations, respectively. Antioxidant melatonin (MEL) resulted in a reduction in JNK phosphorylation in fluoride-stimulated BV-2 microglia. The results confirmed that NOX and iNOS played an important role in fluoride inducing oxidative stress and NO production and JNK took part in the oxidative stress induced by fluoride and meanwhile also could be activated by ROS in fluoride-treated BV-2 cells.