Figure 3: Effect of cGMP pathway alterations in β-cell proliferation in response to proinflammatory cytokines. Rat islets were cultured for 48 h in the presence of cGMP pathway activator 8BrGMPc (100 μM) and a mixture of cytokines IL-1β (50 U/mL) + IFN-γ (1000 U/mL) + TNF-α (1000 U/mL) (CTKS) alone or in combination with ODQ (10 μM), an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase. Results are presented as percentage means ± SEM of combined BrdU/insulin-positive cells relative to insulin positive cells in a minimum of 5 experiments. treated versus control.