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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2013, Article ID 953462, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/953462
Review Article

Apoptosis of Rheumatoid Arthritis Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes: Possible Roles of Nitric Oxide and the Thioredoxin 1

1School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
2School of Chemistry & Chemical Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China

Received 3 January 2013; Accepted 11 March 2013

Academic Editor: Hidde Bult

Copyright © 2013 Huili Li and Ajun Wan. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by synovial hyperplasia and progressive joint destruction. The impaired apoptosis of rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RA-FLS) is pivotal in this process. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the reduced apoptosis are not fully understood. Both nitric oxide and thioredoxin 1 as two important mediators are widely investigated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Interestingly, studies have showed that thioredoxin 1 may serve as a master regulator of S-nitrosylation of caspase-3 to fine-tune apoptosis in vivo. Thus, it is anticipated that further investigations on the role of thioredoxin 1 in the S-nitrosylation and denitrosylation of caspase-3 in RA-FLS will likely provide a novel understanding of mechanisms implicated in the impaired apoptosis of RA-FLS. In this paper, we will provide an overview on pathways involved in the reduced apoptosis of RA-FLS and then discuss specially the possible roles of nitric oxide and the thioredoxin 1 redox system associated with apoptosis of RA-FLS.