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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2013, Article ID 971758, 8 pages
Review Article

Inflammation and Macular Oedema after Pars Plana Vitrectomy

1Second University of Naples, Via Pansini 5, 80100 Napoli, Italy
2Department of Molecular and Clinical Cancer Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
3Department of Ophthalmology, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milan, Italy
4Ophthalmology Unit, San Sebastiano Hospital, Caserta, Italy
5Eye Clinic, Department of Neurological Sciences and Vision, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy
6Eye Clinic, Department of Health Sciences, University of Molise, Campobasso, Italy

Received 18 July 2013; Accepted 23 September 2013

Academic Editor: John Christoforidis

Copyright © 2013 Vito Romano et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Cystoid macular oedema (CMO) is a major cause of reduced vision following intraocular surgery. Although the aetiology of CMO is not completely clarified, intraocular inflammation is known to play a major role in its development. The macula may develop cytotoxic oedema when the primary lesion and fluid accumulation occur in the parenchymatous cells (intracellular oedema) or vasogenic oedema when the primary defect occurs in the blood-retinal barrier and leads to extracellular fluid accumulation (extracellular oedema). We report on the mechanisms of CMO formation after pars plana vitrectomy and associated surgical procedures and discuss possible therapeutic approaches.