Figure 2: Modulation of serum cytokine levels in glioblastoma patients. The data represent group averages of fold modification versus controls + standard deviations. Statistical significance (one way ANOVA): pro-inflammatory cytokines, for IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα, GM-CSF; anti-inflammatory cytokines, for IL-4, and IL-10; angiogenic factors, for bFGF and VEGF. Expression levels of IL-2, IL-8, IFN-γ, and IL-12 were modified, but with low statistical significance.