Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 139873, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/139873
Review Article

Enhancing the Health-Promoting Effects of Tomato Fruit for Biofortified Food

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via Università 100, Portici, 80055 Naples, Italy

Received 13 December 2013; Accepted 1 February 2014; Published 12 March 2014

Academic Editor: Laura Di Renzo

Copyright © 2014 Assunta Raiola et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. U. S. Department of Agriculture, “Economic Research Service,” Tomatoes, 2008, http://www.ers.usda.gov/.
  2. K. Canene-Adams, J. K. Campbell, S. Zaripheh, E. H. Jeffery, and J. W. Erdman Jr., “The tomato as a functional food,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 135, no. 5, pp. 1226–1230, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. L. Frusciante, P. Carli, M. R. Ercolano et al., “Antioxidant nutritional quality of tomato,” Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 609–617, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. Z. Kotíková, J. Lachman, A. Hejtmánková, and K. Hejtmánková, “Determination of antioxidant activity and antioxidant content in tomato varieties and evaluation of mutual interactions between antioxidants,” Food Science and Technology, vol. 44, pp. 1703–1710, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  5. M. J. Periago, J. García-Alonso, K. Jacob et al., “Bioactive compounds, folates and antioxidant properties of tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum) during vine ripening,” International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, vol. 60, no. 8, pp. 694–708, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. V. García-Valeverde, I. Navarro-Gonzáles, J. García-Alonso, and M. J. Periago, “Antioxidant bioactive compounds in selected industrial processing and fresh consumption tomato cultivars,” Food and Bioprocess Technology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 391–402, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  7. M. M. Rigano, G. de Guzman, A. M. Walmsley, L. Frusciante, and A. Barone, “Production of pharmaceutical proteins in Solanaceae food crops,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 14, pp. 2753–2773, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  8. C. Rosati, R. Aquilani, S. Dharmapuri et al., “Metabolic engineering of beta-carotene and lycopene content in tomato fruit,” Plant Journal, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 413–419, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. A. Labate, S. Grandillo, T. Fulton et al., “Tomato,” in Genome Mapping and Molecular Breeding in Plants: Vol. 5 Vegetables, C. Kole, Ed., pp. 1–125, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  10. F. Visioli, P. Riso, S. Grande, C. Galli, and M. Porrini, “Protective activity of tomato products on in vivo markers of lipid oxidation,” European Journal of Nutrition, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 201–206, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M.-L. Silaste, G. Alfthan, A. Aro, Y. A. Kesäniemi, and S. Hörkkö, “Tomato juice decreases LDL cholesterol levels and increases LDL resistance to oxidation,” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 98, no. 6, pp. 1251–1258, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. B. Burton-Freeman, J. Talbot, E. Park, S. Krishnankutty, and I. Edirisinghe, “Protective activity of processed tomato products on postprandial oxidation and inflammation: a clinical trial in healthy weight men and women,” Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 622–631, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. Porrini, P. Riso, A. Brusamolino, C. Berti, S. Guarnieri, and F. Visioli, “Daily intake of a formulated tomato drink affects carotenoid plasma and lymphocyte concentrations and improves cellular antioxidant protection,” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 93–99, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. E. Gouranton, C. Thabuis, C. Riollet et al., “Lycopene inhibits proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression in adipose tissue,” Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 642–648, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. R. E. Simone, M. Russo, A. Catalano et al., “Lycopene inhibits NF-KB-Mediated IL-8 expression and changes redox and PPARγ signalling in cigarette smoke-stimulated macrophages,” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 5, Article ID e19652, pp. 1–11, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. N. Markovits, A. B. Amotz, and Y. Levy, “The effect of tomato-derived lycopene on low carotenoids and enhanced systemic inflammation and oxidation in severe obesity,” Israel Medical Association Journal, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 598–601, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. T. H. Rissanen, S. Voutilainen, K. Nyyssönen, R. Salonen, G. A. Kaplan, and J. T. Salonen, “Serum lycopene concentrations and carotid atherosclerosis: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 133–138, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. Gonzáles-Vallinas, M. Gonzáles-Catejón, A. Rodríguez-Casado, and A. Ramírez de Molina, “Dietary phytochemicals in cancer prevention and therapy: a complementary approach with promising perspectives,” Nutrition Reviews, vol. 71, no. 9, pp. 585–599, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  19. M. S. Ansari and N. P. Gupta, “Lycopene: a novel drug therapy in hormone refractory metastatic prostate cancer,” Urologic Oncology, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 415–420, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. W. Stahl and H. Sies, “Antioxidant activity of carotenoids,” Molecular Aspects of Medicine, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 345–351, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. Karppi, S. Kurl, T. H. Mäkikallio, K. Ronkainen, and J. A. Laukkanen, “Serum β-carotene concentrations and the risk of congestive heart failure in men: a population-based study,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 168, no. 3, pp. 1841–1846, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  22. S. Richer, W. Stiles, L. Statkute et al., “Double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of lutein and antioxidant supplementation in the intervention of atrophic age-related macular degeneration: the Veterans LAST study (Lutein Antioxidant Supplementation Trial),” Optometry, vol. 75, no. 4, pp. 216–230, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. P. SanGiovanni, E. Y. Chew, T. E. Clemons et al., “The relationship of dietary carotenoid and vitamin A, E, and C intake with age-related macular degeneration in a case-control study: AREDS report No. 22,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 125, no. 9, pp. 1225–1232, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. N. Margalit, J. L. Kasperzyk, N. E. Martin et al., “Beta-carotene antioxidant use during radiation therapy and prostate cancer outcome in the physicians' health study,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 28–32, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. G. Riccioni, L. Speranza, M. Pesce, S. Cusenza, N. D'Orazio, and M. J. Glade, “Novel phytonutrient contributors to antioxidant protection against cardiovascular disease,” Nutrition, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 605–610, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. Herrero-Barbudo, B. Soldevilla, B. Pérez-Sacristán et al., “Modulation of DNA-induced damage and repair capacity in humans after dietary Intervention withlutein-enriched fermented milk,” PLOS ONE, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 1–6, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  27. M. Hazewindus, G. R. M. M. Haenen, A. R. Weseler, and A. Bast, “The anti-inflammatory effect of lycopene complements the antioxidant action of ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol,” Food Chemistry, vol. 132, no. 2, pp. 954–958, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. A. Abushita, H. G. Daood, and P. A. Biacs, “Change in carotenoids and antioxidant vitamins in tomato as a function of varietal and technological factors,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 2075–2081, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. V. A. Kirsh, R. B. Hayes, S. T. Mayne et al., “Supplemental and dietary vitamin E, β-carotene, and vitamin C intakes and prostate cancer risk,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 245–254, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. Montonen, P. Knekt, R. Järvinen, and A. Reunanen, “Dietary Antioxidant Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 362–366, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. A. Rodríguez, B. Nespereira, M. Pérez-Ilzarbe, E. Eguinoa, and J. A. Páramo, “Vitamins C and E prevent endothelial VEGF and VEGFR-2 overexpression induced by porcine hypercholesterolemic LDL,” Cardiovascular Research, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 665–673, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. Y. Li and H. E. Schellhorn, “New developments and novel therapeutic perspectives for vitamin C,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 137, no. 10, pp. 2171–2184, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. K. Jacob, M. J. Periago, V. Böhm, and G. R. Berruezo, “Influence of lycopene and vitamin C from tomato juice on biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation,” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 137–146, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. Food and Nutrition Board and National Research Council, Maternal Nutrition and the Course of Pregnancy, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, USA, 1970.
  35. A. Solini, E. Santini, and E. Ferrannini, “Effect of short-term folic acid supplementation on insulin sensitivity and inflammatory markers in overweight subjects,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 1197–1202, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. P. de Wals, F. Tairou, M. I. van Allen et al., “Reduction in neural-tube defects after folic acid fortification in Canada,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 357, no. 2, pp. 135–142, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. A. R. Martín, I. Villegas, M. Sánchez-Hidalgo, and C. A. de la Lastra, “The effects of resveratrol, a phytoalexin derived from red wines, on chronic inflammation induced in an experimentally induced colitis model,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 147, no. 8, pp. 873–885, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. R. Gonzáles, I. Ballester, R. López-Posadas et al., “Effects of flavonoids and other polyphenols on inflammation,” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 331–362, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  39. S. Nishiumi, S. Miyamoto, K. Kawabata et al., “Dietary flavonoids as cancer-preventive and therapeutic biofactors,” Frontiers in bioscience (Scholar edition), vol. 3, pp. 1332–1362, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. Garcia-Alonso, A.-M. Minihane, G. Rimbach, J. C. Rivas-Gonzalo, and S. de Pascual-Teresa, “Red wine anthocyanins are rapidly absorbed in humans and affect monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 levels and antioxidant capacity of plasma,” Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 521–529, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. Lodovici, F. Guglielmi, M. Meoni, and P. Dolara, “Effect of natural phenolic acids on DNA oxidation in vitro,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 1205–1210, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. N. Rajendra Prasad, A. Karthikeyan, S. Karthikeyan, and B. Venkata Reddy, “Inhibitory effect of caffeic acid on cancer cell proliferation by oxidative mechanism in human HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cell line,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 349, no. 1-2, pp. 11–19, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. R. M. Seabra, P. B. Andrade, P. Valentão, E. Fernandes, F. Carvalho, and M. L. Bastos, “Molecules 2009,14,” in Biomaterials From Aquatic and Terrestrial Organisms, M. Fingerman and R. Nagabhushanam, Eds., pp. 15–174, Science Publishers, Enfield, NH, USA, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  44. V. Koleckar, K. Kubikova, Z. Rehakova et al., “Condensed and hydrolysable tannins as antioxidants influencing the health,” Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 436–447, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. M. Ciccone, F. Cortese, M. Gesualdo et al., “Dietary intake of carotenoids and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in cardiovascular care,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2013, Article ID 782137, 11 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. J. H. Dwyer, M. Navab, K. M. Dwyer et al., “Oxygenated carotenoid lutein and progression of early atherosclerosis: the Los Angeles atherosclerosis study,” Circulation, vol. 103, no. 24, pp. 2922–2927, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. A. Armoza, Y. Haim, A. Bashiri, T. Wolak, and E. Paran, “Tomato extract and the carotenoids lycopene and lutein improve endothelial function and attenuate inflammatory NF-κB signaling in endothelial cells,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 521–529, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  48. W.-X. Tian, “Inhibition of fatty acid synthase by polyphenols,” Current Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 967–977, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. C. Santangelo, R. Varì, B. Scazzocchio, R. di Benedetto, C. Filesi, and R. Masella, “Polyphenols, intracellular signalling and inflammation,” Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanita, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 394–405, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. T. Kauss, D. Moynet, J. Rambert et al., “Rutoside decreases human macrophage-derived inflammatory mediators and improves clinical signs in adjuvant-induced arthritis,” Arthritis Research and Therapy, vol. 10, no. 1, article R19, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. K. H. Kwon, A. Murakami, T. Tanaka, and H. Ohigashi, “Dietary rutin, but not its aglycone quercetin, ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in mice: attenuation of pro-inflammatory gene expression,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 395–406, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. M. Comalada, D. Camuesco, S. Sierra et al., “In vivo quercitrin anti-inflammatory effect involves release of quercetin, which inhibits inflammation through down-regulation of the NF-κB pathway,” European Journal of Immunology, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 584–592, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. Q. Wang, M. Xia, C. Liu et al., “Cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside inhibits iNOS and COX-2 expression by inducing liver X receptor alpha activation in THP-1 macrophages,” Life Sciences, vol. 83, no. 5-6, pp. 176–184, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. S. Zhou, Y. Hu, B. Zhang et al., “Dose-dependent absorption, metabolism, and excretion of genistein in rats,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 56, no. 18, pp. 8354–8359, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. Y. Kawai, T. Nishikawa, Y. Shiba et al., “Macrophage as a target of quercetin glucuronides in human atherosclerotic arteries: implication in the anti-atherosclerotic mechanism of dietary flavonoids,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 283, no. 14, pp. 9424–9434, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. T. Tsuda, F. Horio, K. Uchida, H. Aoki, and T. Osawa, “Dietary cyanidin 3-O-β-D-glucoside-rich purple corn color prevents obesity and ameliorates hyperglycemia in mice,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 133, no. 7, pp. 2125–2130, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. T. Tsuda, “Dietary anthocyanin-rich plants: biochemical basis and recent progress in health benefits studies,” Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 159–170, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. P. J. King, G. Ma, W. Miao et al., “Structure-activity relationships: analogues of the dicaffeoylquinic and dicaffeoyltartaric acids as potent inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase and replication,” Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 497–509, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. P. di Tomo, R. Canali, D. Ciavardelli et al., “β-Carotene and lycopene affect endothelial response to TNF-α reducing nitro-oxidative stress and interaction with monocytes,” Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 217–227, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. S. Porfirova, E. Bergmüller, S. Tropf, R. Lemke, and P. Dörmann, “Isolation of an Arabidopsis mutant lacking vitamin E and identification of a cyclase essential for all tocopherol biosynthesis,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 99, no. 19, pp. 12495–12500, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. V. Sharma, M. Mishra, S. Ghosh et al., “Modulation of interleukin-1β mediated inflammatory response in human astrocytes by flavonoids: implications in neuroprotection,” Brain Research Bulletin, vol. 73, no. 1–3, pp. 55–63, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. C. A. Rice-Evans, N. J. Miller, and G. Paganga, “Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds,” Trends in Plant Science, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 152–159, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. R. J. Robbins, “Phenolic acids in foods: an overview of analytical methodology,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 51, no. 10, pp. 2866–2887, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. F. A. M. Silva, F. Borges, C. Guimarães, J. L. F. C. Lima, C. Matos, and S. Reis, “Phenolic acids and derivatives: studies on the relationship among structure, radical scavenging activity, and physicochemical parameters,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 2122–2126, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. J. Bruneton, Pharmacognosie: Phytochimie, Plantes Médicinales, Éditions Tec & Doc, Paris, France, 1999.
  66. A. Szajdek and E. J. Borowska, “Bioactive compounds and health-promoting properties of berry fruits: a review,” Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 147–156, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. A. V. Rao and L. G. Rao, “Carotenoids and human health,” Pharmacological Research, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 207–216, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. H. Gerster, “The potential role of lycopene for human health,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 109–126, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. S. A. Aherne, M. A. Jiwan, T. Daly, and N. M. O'Brien, “Geographical location has greater impact on carotenoid content and bioaccessibility from tomatoes than variety,” Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 250–256, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. G. Maiani, M. J. Caston, and G. Catasta, “Carotenoids: actual knowledge on food sources, intakes, stability and bioavailability and their protective role in humans,” Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, vol. 53, supplement 2, pp. S194–S218, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  71. D. Heber and Q.-Y. Lu, “Overview of mechanisms of action of lycopene,” Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 227, no. 10, pp. 920–923, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. Y. Sharoni, M. Danilenko, N. Dubi, A. Ben-Dor, and J. Levy, “Carotenoids and transcription,” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 430, no. 1, pp. 89–96, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. K. W. Kong and A. Ismail, “Lycopene content and lipophilic antioxidant capacity of by-products from Psidium guajava fruits produced during puree production industry,” Food and Bioproducts Processing, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 53–61, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. G. L. Renju, G. M. Kurup, and C. H. Saritha Kumari, “Effect of lycopene from Chlorella marina on high cholesterol-induced oxidative damage and inflammation in rats,” Inflammopharmacology, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  75. E. Sahlin, G. P. Savage, and C. E. Lister, “Investigation of the antioxidant properties of tomatoes after processing,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 635–647, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. G. Ronen, M. Cohen, D. Zamir, and J. Hirschberg, “Regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis during tomato fruit development: expression of the gene for lycopene epsilon-cyclase is down-regulated during ripening and is elevated in the mutant Delta,” Plant Journal, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 341–351, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. E. Hernandez-Marin, A. Galano, and A. Martínez, “Cis carotenoids: colorful molecules and free radical quenchers,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 117, no. 15, pp. 4050–4061, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  78. T. W.-M. Boileau, A. C. Boileau, and J. W. Erdman Jr., “Bioavailability of all-trans and cis-isomers of lycopene,” Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 227, no. 10, pp. 914–919, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. M. Friedman, “Anticarcinogenic, cardioprotective, and other health benefts of tomato compounds lycopene, α-tomatine, and tomatidine in pure form and in fresh and processed tomatoes,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 61, no. 40, pp. 9534–9550, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  80. B. Halliwell and C. E. Cross, “Oxygen-derived species: their relation to human disease and environmental stress,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 102, supplement 10, pp. 5–12, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. L. A. Pham-Huy, H. He, and C. Pham-Huy, “Free radicals, antioxidants in disease and health,” International Journal of Biomedical Science, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 89–96, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. B. Halliwell and S. Chirico, “Lipid peroxidation: its mechanism, measurement, and significance,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 715S–724S, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. M. S. Hayden, A. P. West, and S. Ghosh, “NF-κB and the immune response,” Oncogene, vol. 25, no. 51, pp. 6758–6780, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. D. Feng, W.-H. Ling, and R.-D. Duan, “Lycopene suppresses LPS-induced NO and IL-6 production by inhibiting the activation of ERK, p38MAPK, and NF-κB in macrophages,” Inflammation Research, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 115–121, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. H. Amir, M. Karas, J. Giat et al., “Lycopene and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 cooperate in the inhibition of cell cycle progression and induction of differentiation in HL-60 leukemic cells,” Nutrition and Cancer, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 105–112, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. D. Ilic, K. Forbes, and C. Hassed, “Lycopene for the prevention of prostate cancer,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 11, Article ID CD008007, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. D. Ilic, M. M. Neuberger, M. Djulbegovic, and P. Dahm, “Screening for prostate cancer,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 1, pp. 1–63, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  88. M. B. Sporn and K. T. Liby, “Is lycopene an effective agent for preventing prostate cancer,” Cancer Prevention Research, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 384–386, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  89. E. Heath, S. Seren, K. Sahin, and O. Kucuk, “The role of tomato lycopene in the treatment of prostate cancer,” in Tomatoes, Lycopene and Human Health, A. V. Rao, Ed., pp. 127–140, Caledonian Science Press, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  90. Q.-Y. Lu, J.-C. Hung, D. Heber et al., “Inverse associations between plasma lycopene and other carotenoids and prostate cancer,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 749–756, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. C. Martin, Y. Zhang, C. Tonelli, and K. Petroni, “Plants, diet, and health,” Annual Review of Plant Biology, vol. 64, pp. 19–46, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  92. H. S. Park, J. Y. Park, and R. Yu, “Relationship of obesity and visceral adiposity with serum concentrations of CRP, TNF-α and IL-6,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 29–35, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. J. M. Argilés, J. López-Soriano, V. Almendro, S. Busquets, and F. J. López-Soriano, “Cross-talk between skeletal muscle and adipose tissue: a link with obesity?” Medicinal Research Reviews, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 49–65, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  94. L. di Renzo, A. Bertoli, M. Bigioni et al., “Body composition and -174G/C interleukin-6 promoter gene polymorphism: association with progression of insulin resistance in normal weight obese syndrome,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 14, no. 26, pp. 2699–2706, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. P. Riso, F. Visioli, S. Grande et al., “Effect of a tomato-based drink on markers of inflammation, immunomodulation, and oxidative stress,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 54, no. 7, pp. 2563–2566, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. A. Raffo, C. Leonardi, V. Fogliano et al., “Nutritional value of cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Naomi F1) harvested at different ripening stages,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 50, no. 22, pp. 6550–6556, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. J. Scalzo, A. Politi, N. Pellegrini, B. Mezzetti, and M. Battino, “Plant genotype affects total antioxidant capacity and phenolic contents in fruit,” Nutrition, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 207–213, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. A. I. Olives Barba, M. Cámara Hurtado, M. C. Sánchez Mata, V. Fernández Ruiz, and M. López Sáenz de Tejada, “Application of a UV-vis detection-HPLC method for a rapid determination of lycopene and β-carotene in vegetables,” Food Chemistry, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 328–336, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. E. Reboul, M. Richelle, E. Se Perrot, C. Desmoulins-Malezet, V. Pirisi, and P. Borel, “Bioaccessibility of carotenoids and vitamin E from their main dietary sources,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 54, no. 23, pp. 8749–8755, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. A. Shaish, A. Daugherty, F. O'Sullivan, G. Schonfeld, and J. W. Heinecke, “Beta-carotene inhibits atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 96, no. 4, pp. 2075–2082, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. M. Kataja-Tuomola, J. R. Sundell, S. Männistö et al., “Effect of α-tocopherol and β-carotene supplementation on the incidence of type 2 diabetes,” Diabetologia, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 47–53, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. D. DellaPenna and B. J. Pogson, “Vitamin synthesis in plants: tocopherols and carotenoids,” Annual Review of Plant Biology, vol. 57, pp. 711–738, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. G. Giorio, A. Yildirim, A. L. Stigliani, and C. D'Ambrosio, “Elevation of lutein content in tomato: a biochemical tug-of-war between licopene cyclases,” Metabolic Engineering, vol. 20, pp. 167–176, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  104. A. Perry, H. Rasmussen, and E. J. Johnson, “Xanthophyll (lutein, zeaxanthin) content in fruits, vegetables and corn and egg products,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 9–15, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. J. L. Guil-Guerrero and M. M. Rebolloso-Fuentes, “Nutrient composition and antioxidant activity of eight tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) varieties,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 123–129, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. F. Granado, B. Olmedilla, and I. Blanco, “Nutritional and clinical relevance of lutein in human health,” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 487–502, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), “Scientific opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to lutein and maintenance of normal vision (ID, 1603, 1604, further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006,” The EFSA Journal, vol. 10, no. 6, article 2716, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  108. E. K. Kabagambe, J. Furtado, A. Baylin, and H. Campos, “Some dietary and adipose tissue carotenoids are associated with the risk of nonfatal acute myocardial infarction in Costa Rica,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 135, no. 7, pp. 1763–1769, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. J. H. Dwyer, M. J. Paul-Labrador, J. Fan, A. M. Shircore, C. N. Bairey Merz, and K. M. Dwyer, “Progression of carotid intima-media thickness and plasma antioxidants: the Los Angeles atherosclerosis study,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 313–319, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. A. Zanfini, G. Corbini, C. la Rosa, and E. Dreassi, “Antioxidant activity of tomato lipophilic extracts and interactions between carotenoids and α-tocopherol in synthetic mixtures,” LWT—Food Science and Technology, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 67–72, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. F. Böhm, R. Edge, E. J. Land, D. J. McGarvey, and T. G. Truscott, “Carotenoids enhance vitamin E antioxidant efficiency,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 119, no. 3, pp. 621–622, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. L. Packer, “Protective role of vitamin E in biological systems,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 53, supplement 4, pp. 1050S–1055S, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. S. Liu, I.-M. Lee, Y. Song et al., “Vitamin E and risk of type 2 diabetes in the Women's Health Study randomized controlled trial,” Diabetes, vol. 55, no. 10, pp. 2856–2862, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. I.-M. Lee, N. R. Cook, J. M. Gaziano et al., “Vitamin E in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. The women's health study: a randomized controlled trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 294, no. 1, pp. 56–65, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. E. Paran, V. Novack, Y. N. Engelhard, and I. Hazan-Halevy, “The effects of natural antioxidants from tomato extract in treated but uncontrolled hypertensive patients,” Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 145–151, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. W. Malewski and P. Markakis, “Ascorbic acid content of the developing tomato fruit,” Journal of Food Science, vol. 36, no. 3, p. 537, 1971. View at Google Scholar
  117. E. M. Yahia, M. Contreras-Padilla, and G. Gonzalez-Aguilar, “Ascorbic acid content in relation to ascorbic acid oxidase activity and polyamine content in tomato and bell pepper fruits during development, maturation and senescence,” LWT—Food Science and Technology, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 452–457, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. H. E. Sauberlich, “Ascorbic acid,” in Present Knowledge in Nutrition, M. L. Brown, Ed., Nutrition Foundation, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  119. R. E. Olson, “Water soluble vitamins,” in Principles of Pharmacology, P. L. Munson, R. A. Mueller, and G. R. Bresse, Eds., chapter 59, Chapman & Hall, New York, NY, USA, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  120. K. A. Naidu, “Vitamin C in human health and disease is still a mystery? An overview,” Nutrition Journal, vol. 2, article 1, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. S. K. Yogeeta, R. B. R. Hanumantra, A. Gnanapragasam, S. Senthilkumar, R. Subhashini, and T. Devaki, “Attenuation of abnormalities in the lipid metabolism during experimental myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol in rats: beneficial effect of ferulic acid and ascorbic acid,” Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, vol. 98, no. 5, pp. 467–472, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. P. Riso, F. Visioli, D. Erba, G. Testolin, and M. Porrini, “Lycopene and vitamin C concentrations increase in plasma and lymphocytes after tomato intake. Effects on cellular antioxidant protection,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 58, no. 10, pp. 1350–1358, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. G. Block, “Vitamin C and cancer prevention: the epidemiological evidence,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 270S–282S, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  124. I. D. Coulter, M. L. Hardy, S. C. Morton et al., “Antioxidants vitamin C and vitamin E for the prevention and treatment of cancer,” Journal of General Internal Medicine, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 735–744, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. T. Tamura and M. F. Picciano, “Folate and human reproduction,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 993–1016, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. M. D. Iniesta, D. Pérez-Conesa, J. García-Alonso, G. Ros, and M. J. Periago, “Folate content in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Influence of cultivar, ripeness, year of harvest, and pasteurization and storage temperatures,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 4739–4745, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. T. Forges, P. Monnier-Barbarino, J. M. Alberto, R. M. Guéant-Rodriguez, J. L. Daval, and J. L. Guéant, “Impact of folate and homocysteine metabolism on human reproductive health,” Human Reproduction Update, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 225–238, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. M. Lucock, “Folic acid: nutritional biochemistry, molecular biology, and role in disease processes,” Molecular Genetics and Metabolism, vol. 71, no. 1-2, pp. 121–138, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. C. Wagner, “Biochemical role of folate in cellular metabolism,” in Folate in Health and Disease, L. B. Bailey, Ed., pp. 23–42, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  130. J. Selhub, P. F. Jacques, P. W. F. Wilson, D. Rush, and I. H. Rosenberg, “Vitamin status and intake as primary determinants of homocysteinemia in an elderly population,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 270, no. 22, pp. 2693–2698, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. D. G. Hackam and S. S. Anand, “Emerging risk factors for atherosclerotic vascular disease: a critical review of the evidence,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 290, no. 7, pp. 932–940, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. A. Splaver, G. A. Lamas, and C. H. Hennekens, “Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease: biological mechanisms, observational epidemiology, and the need for randomized trials,” American Heart Journal, vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 34–40, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. L. Bravo, “Polyphenols: chemistry, dietary sources, metabolism, and nutritional significance,” Nutrition Reviews, vol. 56, no. 11, pp. 317–333, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. N. Balasundram, K. Sundram, and S. Samman, “Phenolic compounds in plants and agri-industrial by-products: antioxidant activity, occurrence, and potential uses,” Food Chemistry, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 191–203, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. B. B. Aggarwal and S. Shishodia, “Suppression of the nuclear factor-κB activation pathway by spice-derived phytochemicals: reasoning for seasoning,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1030, pp. 434–441, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. I. Rahman, S. K. Biswas, and P. A. Kirkham, “Regulation of inflammation and redox signaling by dietary polyphenols,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 72, no. 11, pp. 1439–1452, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. C. R. Caldwell, S. J. Britz, and R. M. Mirecki, “Effect of temperature, elevated carbon dioxide, and drought during seed development on the isoflavone content of dwarf soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] grown in controlled environments,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 1125–1129, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. D. L. Luthria, S. Mukhopadhyay, and D. T. Krizek, “Content of total phenolics and phenolic acids in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruits as influenced by cultivar and solar UV radiation,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 771–777, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. J. Keijer and E. M. van Schothorst, “Adipose tissue failure and mitochondria as a possible target for improvement by bioactive food components,” Current Opinion in Lipidology, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 4–10, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  140. Y.-C. Shen, S.-L. Chen, and C.-K. Wang, “Contribution of tomato phenolics to antioxidation and down-regulation of blood lipids,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 55, no. 16, pp. 6475–6481, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  141. M. A. Murcia and M. Martínez-Tomé, “Antioxidant activity of resveratrol compared with common food additives,” Journal of Food Protection, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 379–384, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. A. D'Introno, A. Paradiso, E. Scoditti et al., “Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of tomato fruits synthesizing different amounts of stilbenes,” Plant Biotechnology Journal, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 422–429, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. A. Crozier, M. E. J. Lean, M. S. McDonald, and C. Black, “Quantitative analysis of the flavonoid content of commercial tomatoes, onions, lettuce, and celery,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 590–595, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  144. R. Slimestad, T. Fossen, and M. J. Verheul, “The flavonoids of tomatoes,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 56, no. 7, pp. 2436–2441, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. M. Rossi, C. Bosetti, E. Negri, P. Lagiou, and C. La Vecchia, “Flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, and cancer risk: a network of case-control studies from Italy,” Nutrition and Cancer, vol. 62, no. 7, pp. 871–877, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. B. Shukitt-Hale, W. Kalt, A. N. Carey, M. Vinqvist-Tymchuk, J. McDonald, and J. A. Joseph, “Plum juice, but not dried plum powder, is effective in mitigating cognitive deficits in aged rats,” Nutrition, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 567–573, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. R. Slimestada and M. Verheulb, “Review of flavonoids and other phenolics from fruits of different tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill.) cultivars,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 89, no. 8, pp. 1255–1270, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. J. W. de Bruyn, F. Garretsen, and E. Kooistra, “Variation in taste and chemical composition of the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentumMill.),” Euphytica, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 214–227, 1971. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. I. Martínez-Valverde, M. J. Periago, G. Provan, and A. Chesson, “Phenolic compounds, lycopene and antioxidant activity in commercial varieties of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum),” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 323–330, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. M. R. Olthof, P. C. H. Hollman, M. N. C. P. Buijsman, J. M. M. van Amelsvoort, and M. B. Katan, “Chlorogenic acid, quercetin-3-rutinoside and black tea phenols are extensively metabolized in humans,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 133, pp. 1806–1814, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  151. M. R. Olthof, P. C. H. Hollman, and M. B. Katan, “Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are absorbed in humans,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 131, no. 1, pp. 66–71, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  152. D. M. Pereira, P. Valentão, J. A. Pereira, and P. B. Andrade, “Phenolics: from chemistry to biology,” Molecules, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 2202–2211, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  153. A. L. Waterhouse, “Wine phenolics,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 957, pp. 21–36, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  154. B. A. Fox and A. G. Cameron, Food Science, Nutrition & Health, chapter 13, Vitamins. J.W. Arrowsmith, Bristol, UK, 6th edition, 1995.
  155. K. H. van Het Hof, C. E. West, J. A. Weststrate, and J. G. A. J. Hautvast, “Dietary factors that affect the bioavailability of carotenoids,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 130, no. 3, pp. 503–506, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  156. M. W. Davey, M. van Montagu, D. Inzé et al., “Plant L-ascorbic acid: chemistry, function, metabolism, bioavailability and effects of processing,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 80, no. 7, pp. 825–860, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  157. C. Gärtner, W. Stahl, and H. Sies, “Lycopene is more bioavailable from tomato paste than from fresh tomatoes,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 116–122, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  158. D. Veronica, W. Xianzhong, K. K. Adom, and R. H. Liu, “Thermal processing enhances the nutritional value of tomatoes by increasing total antioxidant activity,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 50, no. 10, pp. 3010–3014, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. I. Colle, L. Lemmens, S. van Buggenhout, A. van Loey, and M. Hendrickx, “Effect of thermal processing on the degradation, isomerization, and bioaccessibility of lycopene in tomato pulp,” Journal of Food Science, vol. 75, no. 9, pp. C753–C759, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  160. I. J. P. Colle, A. Andrys, A. Grundelius et al., “Effect of pilot-scale aseptic processing on tomato soup quality parameters,” Journal of Food Science, vol. 76, no. 5, pp. C714–C723, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  161. S. Gahler, K. Otto, and V. Böhm, “Alterations of vitamin C, total phenolics, and antioxidant capacity as affected by processing tomatoes to different products,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 51, no. 27, pp. 7962–7968, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  162. C. Seybold, K. Fröhlich, R. Bitsch, K. Otto, and V. Böhm, “Changes in contents of carotenoids and vitamin E during tomato processing,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 52, no. 23, pp. 7005–7010, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  163. C.-H. Chang, H.-Y. Lin, C.-Y. Chang, and Y.-C. Liu, “Comparisons on the antioxidant properties of fresh, freeze-dried and hot-air-dried tomatoes,” Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 478–485, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  164. A. Patras, N. P. Brunton, C. O'Donnell, and B. K. Tiwari, “Effect of thermal processing on anthocyanin stability in foods; mechanisms and kinetics of degradation,” Trends in Food Science and Technology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 3–11, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  165. C. Martin, “The interface between plant metabolic engineering and human health,” Current Opinion in Biotechnology, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 344–353, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  166. C. Zhu, G. Sanahuja, D. Yuan et al., “Biofortification of plants with altered antioxidant content and composition: genetic engineering strategies,” Plant Biotechnology Journal, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 129–141, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  167. C. Zhang, J. Liu, Y. Zhang et al., “Overexpression of SlGMEs leads to ascorbate accumulation with enhanced oxidative stress, cold, and salt tolerance in tomato,” Plant Cell Reports, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 389–398, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  168. V. M. Haroldsen, C. L. Chi-Ham, S. Kulkarni, A. Lorence, and A. B. Bennett, “Constitutively expressed DHAR and MDHAR influence fruit, but not foliar ascorbate levels in tomato,” Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 1244–1249, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  169. S. Römer, P. D. Fraser, J. W. Kiano et al., “Elevation of the provitamin A content of transgenic tomato plants,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 666–669, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  170. C. Cronje, G. M. George, A. R. Fernie, J. Bekker, J. Kossmann, and R. Bauer, “Manipulation of l-ascorbic acid biosynthesis pathways in Solanum lycopersicum: elevated GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase activity enhances l-ascorbate levels in red fruit,” Planta, vol. 235, no. 3, pp. 553–564, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  171. R. I. Díaz de la Garza, J. F. Gregory III, and A. D. Hanson, “Folate biofortification of tomato fruit,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 104, no. 10, pp. 4218–4222, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  172. R. Díaz de la Garza, E. P. Quinlivan, S. M. J. Klaus, G. J. C. Basset, J. F. Gregory III, and A. D. Hanson, “Folate biofortification in tomatoes by engineering the pteridine branch of folate synthesis,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 101, no. 38, pp. 13720–13725, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  173. T. Hossain, I. Rosenberg, J. Selhub, G. Kishore, R. Beachy, and K. Schubert, “Enhancement of folates in plants through metabolic engineering,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 101, no. 14, pp. 5158–5163, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  174. W. Apel and R. Bock, “Enhancement of carotenoid biosynthesis in transplastomic tomatoes by induced lycopene-to-provitamin a conversion,” Plant Physiology, vol. 151, no. 1, pp. 59–66, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  175. G. Giovinazzo, L. D'Amico, A. Paradiso, R. Bollini, F. Sparvoli, and L. DeGara, “Antioxidant metabolite profiles in tomato fruit constitutively expressing the grapevine stilbene synthase gene,” Plant Biotechnology Journal, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 57–69, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  176. G. R. Davuluri, A. van Tuinen, P. D. Fraser et al., “Fruit-specific RNAi-mediated suppression of DET1 enhances carotenoid and flavonoid content in tomatoes,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 890–895, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  177. E. Butelli, L. Titta, M. Giorgio et al., “Enrichment of tomato fruit with health-promoting anthocyanins by expression of select transcription factors,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 1301–1308, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  178. A. Mazzucato, R. Papa, E. Bitocchi et al., “Genetic diversity, structure and marker-trait associations in a collection of Italian tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) landraces,” Theoretical and Applied Genetics, vol. 116, no. 5, pp. 657–669, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  179. M. P. Kinkade and M. R. Foolad, “Validation and fine mapping of lyc12.1, a QTL for increased tomato fruit lycopene content,” Theoretical and Applied Genetics, vol. 126, no. 8, pp. 2163–2175, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  180. Y. D. Sun, Y. Liang, J. M. Wu, Y. Z. Li, X. Cui, and L. Qin, “Dynamic QTL analysis for fruit lycopene content and total soluble solid content in a Solanum lycopersicum x S. pimpinellifolium cross,” Genetics and Molecular Research, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 3696–3710, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  181. A. di Matteo, A. Sacco, M. Anacleria et al., “The ascorbic acid content in tomato fruits is associated with the expression of genes involved in pectin degradation,” BMC Plant Biology, vol. 10, article 163, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  182. A. di Matteo, A. Sacco, V. Ruggieri, N. Trotta, A. Nunziata, and A. Barone, “Transcriptional network controlling antioxidants in tomato fruit,” Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 150, pp. 111–112, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  183. A. Sacco, A. di Matteo, N. Lombardi et al., “Quantitative trait loci pyramiding for fruit quality traits in tomato,” Molecular Breeding, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 217–222, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  184. J. Luo, E. Butelli, L. Hill et al., “AtMYB12 regulates caffeoyl quinic acid and flavonol synthesis in tomato: expression in fruit results in very high levels of both types of polyphenol,” Plant Journal, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 316–326, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  185. A. Bovy, R. de Vos, M. Kemper et al., “High-flavonol tomatoes resulting from the heterologous expression of the maize transcription factor genes LC and C1,” Plant Cell, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 2509–2526, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  186. J. Xu, N. Ranc, S. Muños et al., “Phenotypic diversity and association mapping for fruit quality traits in cultivated tomato and related species,” Theoretical and Applied Genetics, vol. 126, no. 3, pp. 567–581, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  187. N. Schauer, Y. Semel, U. Roessner et al., “Comprehensive metabolic profiling and phenotyping of interspecific introgression lines for tomato improvement,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 447–454, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  188. L. A. Mueller, S. D. Tanskley, J. J. Giovannoni et al., “The tomato sequencing project, the first cornerstone of the International Solanaceae Project (SOL),” Comparative and Functional Genomics, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 153–158, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  189. S. Sato, S. Tabata, H. Hirakawa et al., “The tomato genome sequence provides insights into fleshy fruit evolution,” Nature, vol. 485, pp. 635–641, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  190. X. Li, H. Sun, J. Pei et al., “De novo sequencing and comparative analysis of the blueberry transcriptome to discover putative genes related to antioxidants,” Gene, vol. 511, no. 1, pp. 54–61, 2012. View at Google Scholar