Table 1: Lipids, inflammatory markers, and insulin sensitivity after treatment.

PlaceboProbioticOmega-3Probiotic + omega-3
PretreatmentPosttreatmentPretreatmentPosttreatmentPretreatmentPosttreatmentPretreatmentPosttreatment

Fasting blood glucose (mg/dL)89.30 ± 3.391.92 ± 3.18*a88 ± 1.0179.38 ± 1.05*b87.60 ± 1.483.93 ± 1.23*c86.70 ± 2.1574.46 ± 1.188*cd
Cholesterol (mg/dL)197.80 ± 13.92197.91 ± 13.93a165.10 ± 5.76156.06 ± 5.85*a165.50 ± 9.73161.06 ± 9.74*a215.10 ± 7.86204.46 ± 7.73*a
Triglyceride (mg/dL)128 ± 2.26128.85 ± 27.7a140.70 ± 17.6133.13 ± 17.39*ab105.90 ± 6.53102.62 ± 6.44*a150.00 ± 8.49138.74 ± 8.35*b
LDL (mg/dL)136.30 ± 14.19136.67 ± 14.2a102.80 ± 4.9194.50 ± 4.31b106.10 ± 10.199.87 ± 10.08*b150.30 ± 8.41134.58 ± 7.93*a
HDL (mg/dL)35.90 ± 2.8535.46 ± 2.85a29.60 ± 1.1234.93 ± 1.08*a38.20 ± 1.6540.66 ± 1.62*b34.80 ± 2.2342.13 ± 1.89*b
VLDL (mg/dL)25.60 ± 5.4525.77 ± 5.54a32.60 ± 4.3826.62 ± 3.47a21.10 ± 1.320.51 ± 1.28*a30.00 ± 1.6927.74 ± 1.67*a
Atherogenic factor196.80 ± 13.92196.91 ± 13.93a164.10 ± 5.76155.75 ± 5.8a164.50 ± 9.73160.06 ± 9.74*a214.10 ± 7.86203.46 ± 7.73*a
Insulin level ( U/mL)17.90 ± 0.5218.26 ± 0.43a18.40 ± 0.2717.59 ± 0.28*b18.50 ± 0.2317.84 ± 0.22*a18.00 ± 0.316.75 ± 0.25*b
Insulin resistance3.90 ± 0.14.11 ± 0.12*a 4.00 ± 0.033.44 ± 0.04*b4.00 ± 0.083.69 ± 0.07*c3.80 ± 0.083.07 ± 0.04*d
CRP (mg/L)5.30 ± 0.585.35 ± 0.58*a5.60 ± 0.524.36 ± 0.49*a5.60 ± 0.745.26 ± 0.72*a6.20 ± 0.414.22 ± 0.41*a

Values are mean ± SEM.
*Superscript indicates a significant difference between baseline and after treatment.
*<0.05 significantly different from the pretreatment level.
a,b,c,dSuperscript indicates significant <0.05 difference in relative changes versus baseline compared between supplemented and placebo group.