Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 349476, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/349476
Research Article

Can the TLR-4-Mediated Signaling Pathway Be “A Key Inflammatory Promoter for Sporadic TAA”?

1Unit of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Surgery and Oncology, University of Palermo, 90127 Palermo, Italy
2Department of Pathobiology and Medical and Forensic Biotechnologies, University of Palermo, Corso Tukory 211, 90134 Palermo, Italy
3Department of Pathologic Anatomy, University of Palermo, 90127 Palermo, Italy

Received 19 December 2013; Accepted 18 June 2014; Published 10 July 2014

Academic Editor: Massimiliano M. Corsi Romanelli

Copyright © 2014 Giovanni Ruvolo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Karavidas, G. Lazaros, D. Tsiachris, and V. Pyrgakis, “Aging and the cardiovascular system,” Hellenic Journal of Cardiology, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 421–427, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. Z. Ungvari, G. Kaley, R. De Cabo, W. E. Sonntag, and A. Csiszar, “Mechanisms of vascular aging: new perspectives,” Journals of Gerontology A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, vol. 65, no. 10, pp. 1028–1041, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. E. Safar, “Arterial aging-hemodynamic changes and therapeutic options,” Nature Reviews Cardiology, vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 422–449, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. C. Kovacic, P. Moreno, E. G. Nabel, V. Hachinski, and V. Fuster, “Cellular senescence, vascular disease, and aging: part 2 of a 2-part review: clinical vascular disease in the elderly,” Circulation, vol. 123, no. 17, pp. 1900–1910, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. Y. Maruyama, “Aging and arterial-cardiac interactions in the elderly,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 155, no. 1, pp. 14–19, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. Sawabe, “Vascular aging: from molecular mechanism to clinical significance,” Geriatrics and Gerontology International, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. S213–S220, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Center for Injury Prevention Control, “WISQARS leading causes of death reports, United States,” 2013, http://webappa.cdc.gov/cgi-bin/broker.exe.
  8. Demographic Population Data, 2013, http://www.istat.it/.
  9. W. D. Clouse, J. W. Hallett Jr., H. V. Schaff et al., “Acute aortic dissection: population-based incidence compared with degenerative aortic aneurysm rupture,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 176–180, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. Acosta, M. Ögren, H. Bengtsson, D. Bergqvist, B. Lindblad, and Z. Zdanowski, “Increasing incidence of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm: A population-based study,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 237–243, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. W. S. Aronow, J. L. Fleg, and C. J. Pepine, “ACCF/AHA 2011 expert consensus document on hypertension in the elderly: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Task Force on Clinical Expert Consensus Documents,” Circulation, vol. 123, pp. 2434–2506, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. J. A. Elefteriades and E. A. Farkas, “Thoracic aortic aneurysm clinically pertinent controversies and uncertainties,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 841–857, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. H. Kuivaniemi, C. D. Platsoucas, and M. D. Tilson III, “Aortic aneurysms: an immune disease with a strong genetic component,” Circulation, vol. 117, no. 2, pp. 242–252, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. R. He, D. C. Guo, W. Sun et al., “Characterization of the inflammatory cells in ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms in patients with Marfan syndrome, familial thoracic aortic aneurysms, and sporadic aneurysms,” Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 136, no. 4, pp. 922.e1–929.e1, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. R. He, D. Guo, A. L. Estrera et al., “Characterization of the inflammatory and apoptotic cells in the aortas of patients with ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections,” Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 131, no. 3, pp. 671–678, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. R. Balistreri, C. Pisano, T. D'Amico et al., “The role of inflammation in type A aortic dissection: a pilot study,” European Journal of Inflammation, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 269–278, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. X. Zhang, Y. H. Shen, and S. A. LeMaire, “Thoracic aortic dissection: are matrix metalloproteinases involved?” Vascular, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 147–157, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Hiratzka,L. F., G. L. Bakris, J. A. Beckman et al., “2010 ACCF/AHA/AATS/ACR/ASA/SCA/SCAI/SIR/STS/SVM guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with thoracic aortic disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American College of Radiology, American Stroke Association, Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists , Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Interventional Radiology, Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and Society for Vascular Medicine,” Journal of American College of Cardiology, vol. 55, no. 14, pp. e27–e129, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. M. El Assar, J. Angulo, and L. Rodríguez-Mañas, “Oxidative stress and vascular inflammation in aging,” Free Radical Biology Medicine, vol. 65, pp. 380–401, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  20. M. M. Bachschmid, S. Schildknecht, R. Matsui et al., “Vascular aging: chronic oxidative stress and impairment of redox signaling. Consequences for vascular homeostasis and disease,” Annals of Medicine, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 17–36, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. Csiszar, M. Wang, E. G. Lakatta, and Z. Ungvari, “Inflammation and endothelial dysfunction during aging: role of NF-κB,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 105, no. 4, pp. 1333–1341, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. P. Matzinger, “The danger model: a renewed sense of self,” Science, vol. 296, no. 5566, pp. 301–305, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. O. Pryshchep, W. Ma-Krupa, B. R. Younge, J. J. Goronzy, and C. M. Weyand, “Vessel-specific toll-like receptor profiles in human medium and large arteries,” Circulation, vol. 118, no. 12, pp. 1276–1284, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. Sirisinha, “Insight into the mechanisms regulating immunehomeostasis in health and disease,” Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 1–14, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. C. G. Hollestelle, M. R. De Vries, J. K. Van Keulen et al., “Toll-like receptor 4 is involved in outward arterial remodeling,” Circulation, vol. 109, no. 3, pp. 393–398, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. Vink, D. P. V. de Kleijn, and G. Pasterkamp, “Functional role for toll-like receptors in atherosclerosis and arterial remodeling,” Current Opinion in Lipidology, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 515–521, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. K. G. Birukov, “Cyclic stretch, reactive oxygen species, and vascular remodeling,” Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 1651–1667, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. Wang, R. E. Monticone, and E. G. Lakatta, “Arterial aging: a journey into subclinical arterial disease,” Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 201–207, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. C. R. Balistreri, G. Candore, G. Accardi, G. Colonna-Romano, and D. Lio, “NF-κB pathway activators as potential ageing biomarkers: targets for new therapeutic strategies,” Immunity and Ageing, vol. 10, article 24, no. 1, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. C. R. Balistreri, G. Candore, G. Colonna-Romano et al., “Role of toll-like receptor 4 in acute myocardial infarction and longevity,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 292, no. 19, pp. 2339–2340, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. Frantz, G. Ertl, and J. Bauersachs, “Mechanisms of disease: toll-like receptors in cardiovascular disease,” Nature Clinical Practice Cardiovascular Medicine, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 444–454, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. C. R. Balistreri, G. Colonna-Romano, D. Lio, G. Candore, and C. Caruso, “TLR4 polymorphisms and ageing: Implications for the pathophysiology of age-related diseases,” Journal of Clinical Immunology, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 406–415, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. G. Ionita, F. Arslan, D. P. V. de Kleijn, and G. Pasterkamp, “Endogenous inflammatory molecules engage toll-like receptors in cardiovascular disease,” Journal of Innate Immunity, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 307–315, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. U. Hofmann, G. Ertl, and S. Frantz, “Toll-like receptors as potential therapeutic targets in cardiac dysfunction,” Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 753–765, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. Navi, H. Patel, S. Shaw, D. Baker, and J. Tsui, “Therapeutic role of toll-like receptor modification in cardiovascular dysfunction,” Vascular Pharmacology, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 231–239, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. E. Incalcaterra, G. Accardi, C. R. Balistreri et al., “Pro-inflammatory genetic markers of atherosclerosis topical collection on genetics,” Current Atherosclerosis Reports, vol. 15, no. 6, article 329, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. Y. Song, H. Shen, D. Schenten, P. Shan, P. J. Lee, and D. R. Goldstein, “Aging enhances the basal production of IL-6 and CCL2 in vascular smooth muscle cells,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 103–109, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. R. Eissler, C. Schmaderer, K. Rusai et al., “Hypertension augments cardiac Toll-like receptor 4 expression and activity,” Hypertension Research, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 551–558, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. González-Ramos, L. Calleros, S. López-Ongil et al., “HSP70 increases extracellular matrix production by human vascular smooth muscle through TGF-beta1 up-regulation,” International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 232–242, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. H. Li, H. Xu, and S. Liu, “Toll-like receptors 4 induces expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in human aortic smooth muscle cells,” Molecular Biology Reports, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 1419–1423, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. Bucci, V. Vellecco, L. Harrington et al., “Cross-talk between toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is involved in vascular function,” The British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 168, no. 2, pp. 411–420, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. G. Pirianov, E. Torsney, F. Howe, and G. W. Cockerill, “Rosiglitazone negatively regulates c-Jun N-terminal kinase and toll-like receptor 4 proinflammatory signalling during initiation of experimental aortic aneurysms,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 225, no. 1, pp. 69–75, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. C. R. Balistreri, A. R. Bonfigli, M. Boemi et al., “Evidences of +896 A/G TLR4 polymorphism as an indicative of prevalence of complications in T2DM patients,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2014, Article ID 973139, 8 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. M. Ono, H. Goerler, D. Boethig, M. Westhoff-Bleck, and T. Breymann, “Current surgical management of ascending aortic aneurysm in children and young adults,” Annals of Thoracic Surgery, vol. 88, no. 5, pp. 1527–1533, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. T. E. David, “Surgical treatment of ascending aorta and aortic root aneurysms,” Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 438–444, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. C. Pisano, E. Maresi, C. R. Balistreri et al., “Histological and genetic studies in patients with bicuspid aortic valve and ascending aorta complications,” Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 300–306, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. C. Pisano, E. Maresi, D. Merlo et al., “A particular phenotype of ascending aorta aneurysms as precursor of type A aortic dissection,” Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 840–846, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. C. R. Balistreri, C. Pisano, G. Candore, E. Maresi, M. Codispoti, and G. Ruvolo, “Focus on the unique mechanisms involved in thoracic aortic aneurysm formation in bicuspid aortic valve versus tricuspid aortic valve patients: clinical implications of a pilot study,” European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. e180–e186, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. C. R. Balistreri, E. Maresi, and C. Pisano, “Identification of three particular morphological phenotypes in sporadic thoracic aortic aneurysm (S-TAA): the phenotype III as S-TAA biomarker in aged individuals,” Rejuvenation Research, vol. 17, pp. 192–196, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. J. F. M. Bechtel, F. Noack, F. Sayk, A. W. Erasmi, C. Bartels, and H. Sievers, “Histopathological grading of ascending aortic aneurysm: comparison of patients with bicuspid versus tricuspid aortic valve,” Journal of Heart Valve Disease, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 54–61, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. C. R. Balistreri, C. Pisano, D. Merlo et al., “Is the mean blood leukocyte telomere length a predictor for sporadic thoracic aortic aneurysm? Data from a preliminary study,” Rejuvenation Research, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 170–173, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. T. de Meyer, E. R. Rietzschel, M. L. de Buyzere, W. van Criekinge, and S. Bekaert, “Telomere length and cardiovascular aging: the means to the ends?” Ageing Research Reviews, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 297–303, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. F. Fyhrquist and O. Saijonmaa, “Telomere length and cardiovascular aging,” Annals of Medicine, vol. 44, supplement 1, pp. S138–S142, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. C. R. Balistreri, C. Caruso, F. Listì, G. Colonna-Romano, D. Lio, and G. Candore, “LPS-mediated production of pro/anti-inflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids in whole blood samples: Biological effects of +896A/G TLR4 polymorphism in a Sicilian population of healthy subjects,” Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, vol. 132, no. 3, pp. 86–92, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. C. R. Balistreri, G. Candore, G. Accardi et al., “Genetics of longevity. Data from the studies on Sicilian centenarians,” Immunity and Ageing, vol. 9, article 8, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. C. R. Balistreri, M. P. Grimaldi, M. Chiappelli et al., “Association between the polymorphisms of TLR4 and CD14 genes and Alzheimer's disease,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 14, no. 26, pp. 2672–2677, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. C. R. Balistreri, C. Caruso, G. Carruba et al., “A pilot study on prostate cancer risk and pro-inflammatory genotypes: pathophysiology and therapeutic implications,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 718–724, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. G. Pompilio, M. C. Capogrossi, M. Pesce et al., “Endothelial progenitor cells and cardiovascular homeostasis: clinical implications,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 131, no. 2, pp. 156–167, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. M. R. Richardson and M. C. Yoder, “Endothelial progenitor cells: quo vadis?” The Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 266–272, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. S. P. Toya and A. B. Malik, “Role of endothelial injury in disease mechanisms and contribution of progenitor cells in mediating endothelial repair,” Immunobiology, vol. 217, no. 5, pp. 569–580, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. J. He, Z. Xiao, X. Chen et al., “The expression of functional toll-like receptor 4 is associated with proliferation and maintenance of stem cell phenotype in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs),” Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 111, no. 1, pp. 179–186, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. F. Olivieri, M. R. Rippo, F. Prattichizzo et al., “Toll like receptor signaling in “inflammaging”: MicroRNA as new players,” Immunity and Ageing, vol. 10, no. 1, article 11, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. C. P. Lin, F. Y. Lin, P. H. Huang et al., “Endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction in cardiovascular diseases: role of reactive oxygen species and inflammation,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2013, Article ID 845037, 10 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. Q. Li, J. Han, H. Chen, and X. Mo, “Reduced circulating endothelial progenitor cells in the coronary slow flow phenomenon,” Coronary Artery Disease, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 6–10, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. Y. Feng, S. Yang, B. Xiao et al., “Decreased in the number and function of circulation endothelial progenitor cells in patients with avascular necrosis of the femoral head,” Bone, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 32–40, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus