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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2014, Article ID 351856, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/351856
Research Article

Red Ginseng Extract Ameliorates Autoimmune Arthritis via Regulation of STAT3 Pathway, Th17/Treg Balance, and Osteoclastogenesis in Mice and Human

1The Rheumatism Research Center, Catholic Research Institute of Medical Science, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea
2Divison of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, 505 Banpo-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701, Republic of Korea
3Conversant Research Consortium in Immunologic Disease, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Korea 505 Banpo-Dong, Seocho-Ku, Seoul 137-040, Republic of Korea

Received 28 February 2014; Revised 5 June 2014; Accepted 18 June 2014; Published 23 July 2014

Academic Editor: Marilia Seelaender

Copyright © 2014 JooYeon Jhun et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by chronic joint inflammation. Red ginseng is a steamed and dried Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, which has been used as alternative medicine for thousands of years. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of red ginseng extracts (RGE) on autoimmune arthritis in mice and humans and to delineate the underlying mechanism. RGE was orally administered three times a week to mice with arthritis. Oral administration of RGE markedly ameliorated clinical arthritis score and histologically assessed joint inflammation in mice with CIA. A significant reduction in STAT3 phosphorylation and a decrease in the number of Th17 cells were observed with RGE treatment. There was also a marked reduction in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis with treatment of RGE. The inhibitory effect of RGE on Th17 differentiation and osteoclastogenesis observed in mice was also confirmed in the subsequent experiments performed using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Our findings provide the first evidence that RGE can regulate Th17 and reciprocally promote Treg cells by inhibiting the phosphorylation of STAT3. Therefore, RGE can ameliorate arthritis in mice with CIA by targeting pathogenic Th17 and osteoclast differentiation, suggesting a novel therapy for treatment of RA.