Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2014, Article ID 381418, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/381418
Research Article

Expression of Toll-Like Receptors 3, 7, and 9 in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

1Department of Hematology, Medical University of Lodz, Ciolkowskiego 2, 93-510 Lodz, Poland
2Copernicus Memorial Hospital, Pabianicka 62, 93-513 Lodz, Poland
3Department of Experimental Hematology, Medical University of Lodz, Ciolkowskiego 2, 93-510 Lodz, Poland
4Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Medical University of Lodz, ul. Plac J. Hallera 1, 90-647 Lodz, Poland

Received 13 October 2013; Accepted 13 January 2014; Published 25 February 2014

Academic Editor: Philipp M. Lepper

Copyright © 2014 Agnieszka Klonowska-Szymczyk et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. C. Crispín, S.-N. C. Liossis, K. Kis-Toth et al., “Pathogenesis of human systemic lupus erythematosus: recent advances,” Trends in Molecular Medicine, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 47–57, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. G. Guggino, A. R. Giardina, F. Ciccia, G. Triolo, F. Dieli, and G. Sireci, “Are toll-like receptors and decoy receptors involved in the immunopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus-like syndromes?” Clinical and Developmental Immunology, vol. 2012, Article ID 135932, 5 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. C. Richez, P. Blanco, I. Rifkin, J.-F. Moreau, and T. Schaeverbeke, “Role for toll-like receptors in autoimmune disease: the example of systemic lupus erythematosus,” Joint Bone Spine, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 124–130, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. Hurst and P. von Landenberg, “Toll-like receptors and autoimmunity,” Autoimmunity Reviews, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 204–208, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. Schnare, G. M. Barton, A. C. Holt, K. Takeda, S. Akira, and R. Medzhitov, “Toll-like receptors control activation of adaptive immune responses,” Nature Immunology, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 947–950, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. Pasare and R. Medzhitov, “Toll-like receptors: linking innate and adaptive immunity,” Microbes and Infection, vol. 6, no. 15, pp. 1382–1387, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. Krug, “Nucleic acid recognition receptors in autoimmunity,” Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, no. 183, pp. 129–151, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Bijl, P. C. Limburg, and C. G. M. Kallenberg, “New insights into the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): the role of apoptosis,” The Netherlands Journal of Medicine, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 66–75, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. E. D. Papadimitraki, G. K. Bertsias, and D. T. Boumpas, “Toll like receptors and autoimmunity: a critical appraisal,” Journal of Autoimmunity, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 310–318, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. A. H. Rahman and R. A. Eisenberg, “The role of toll-like receptors in systemic lupus erythematosus,” Springer Seminars in Immunopathology, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 131–143, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. R. D. Pawar, P. S. Patole, A. Ellwart et al., “Ligands to nucleic acid-specific toll-like receptors and the onset of lupus nephritis,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 3365–3373, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. C. Hochberg, “Updating the American College of Rheumatology revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 40, no. 9, p. 1725, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. H. Liang, S. A. Socher, W. N. Roberts, and J. M. Esdaile, “Measurement of systemic lupus erythematosus activity in clinical research,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 817–825, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Wolska, B. Cebula-Obrzut, P. Smolewski, and T. Robak, “Effects of Toll-like receptor 7 and Toll-like receptor 9 signaling stimulators and inhibitors on chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells ex vivo and their interactions with cladribine,” Leukemia & Lymphoma, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 1268–1278, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  15. O. Wu, G. P. Chen, H. Chen et al., “The expressions of Toll-like receptor 9 and T-bet in circulating B and T cells in newly diagnosed, untreated systemic lupus erythematosus and correlations with disease activity and laboratory data in a Chinese population,” Immunobiology, vol. 214, no. 5, pp. 392–402, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. E. D. Papadimitraki, C. Choulaki, E. Koutala et al., “Expansion of toll-like receptor 9-expressing B cells in active systemic lupus erythematosus: implications for the induction and maintenance of the autoimmune process,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 54, no. 11, pp. 3601–3611, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. K. Wong, P. T. Y. Wong, L. S. Tam, E. K. Li, D. P. Chen, and C. W. K. Lam, “Activation profile of Toll-like receptors of peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 159, no. 1, pp. 11–22, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. E. D. Papadimitraki, M. Tzardi, G. Bertsias, E. Sotsiou, and D. T. Boumpas, “Glomerular expression of toll-like receptor-9 in lupus nephritis but not in normal kidneys: Implications for the amplification of the inflammatory response,” Lupus, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 831–835, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. Komatsuda, H. Wakui, K. Iwamoto et al., “Up-regulated expression of Toll-like receptors mRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 152, no. 3, pp. 482–487, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. Nakano, S. Morimoto, J. Suzuki et al., “Role of pathogenic auto-antibody production by Toll-like receptor 9 of B cells in active systemic lupus erythematosus,” Rheumatology, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 145–149, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. K. Migita, T. Miyashita, Y. Maeda et al., “Toll-like receptor expression in lupus peripheral blood mononuclear cells,” Journal of Rheumatology, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 493–500, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. Y.-S. Lu, L.-Y. Pu, X.-C. Li, and X.-H. Wang, “Methylprednisolone inhibits activated CD4+ T cell survival promoted by toll-like receptor ligands,” Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Diseases International, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 376–383, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. Y. Karim, “Immunodeficiency in the lupus clinic,” Lupus, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 127–131, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. G. Adler, “Cytokiny w początkowych etapach odpowiedzi odpornościowej,” Reumatologia, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 230–235, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  25. P. Hrycaj and D. Cieślak, “Zajęcie układu krwiotwórczego w przebiegu tocznia rumieniowatego układowego,” Reumatologia, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 31–35, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  26. D. S. O'Mahony, U. Pham, R. Iyer, T. R. Hawn, and W. C. Liles, “Differential constitutive and cytokine-modulated expression of human Toll-like receptors in primary neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages,” International Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. Sirén, J. Pirhonen, I. Julkunen, and S. Matikainen, “IFN-α regulates TLR-dependent gene expression of IFN-α, IFN-β, IL-28, and IL-29,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 174, no. 4, pp. 1932–1937, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. J. Looney, “B cell-Targeted therapies for systemic lupus erythematosus: an update on clinical trial data,” Drugs, vol. 70, no. 5, pp. 529–540, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. L. Rönnblom and M. L. Eloranta, “The interferon signature in autoimmune diseases,” Current Opinion in Rheumatology, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 248–253, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. E. C. Baechler, F. M. Batliwalla, G. Karypis et al., “Interferon-inducible gene expression signature in peripheral blood cells of patients with severe lupus,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 2610–2615, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. K. B. Elkon and V. V. Stone, “Type I interferon and systemic lupus erythematosus,” Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research, vol. 31, no. 11, pp. 803–812, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. K. H. Costenbader, D. Feskanich, M. J. Stampfer, and E. W. Karlson, “Reproductive and menopausal factors and risk of systemic lupus erythematosus in women,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 1251–1262, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. C. C. Mok, C. S. Lau, C. T. K. Ho, and R. W. S. Wong, “Do flares of systemic lupus erythematosus decline after menopause?” Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 357–362, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. N. A. Young, A. Friedman, B. Kaffenberger, and W. N. Jarjour, “Estrogen stimulation of endosomal Toll-Like receptor expression lowers the threshold of activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and contributes to the gender bias of systemic lupus erythematosus,” Arthritis & Rheumatism, vol. 63, supplement 10, p. 1425, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  35. C. Seillet, S. Laffont, F. Trémollières et al., “The TLR-mediated response of plasmacytoid dendritic cells is positively regulated by estradiol in vivo through cell-intrinsic estrogen receptor α signaling,” Blood, vol. 119, no. 2, pp. 454–464, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. Meier, J. J. Chang, E. S. Chan et al., “Sex differences in the Toll-like receptor-mediated response of plasmacytoid dendritic cells to HIV-1,” Nature Medicine, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 955–959, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. A. M. Cunningham, O. S. Naga, J. G. Eudaly, J. L. Scott, and G. S. Gilkeson, “Estrogen receptor alpha modulates Toll-like receptor signaling in murine lupus,” Clinical Immunology, vol. 144, pp. 1–12, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. A. Myles and A. Aggarwal, “Expression of toll-like receptors 2 and 4 is increased in peripheral blood and synovial fluid monocytes of patients with enthesitis-related arthritis subtype of juvenile idiopathic arthritis,” Rheumatology, vol. 50, no. 3, Article ID keq362, pp. 481–488, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. C. Ospelt, F. Brentano, Y. Rengel et al., “Overexpression of toll-like receptors 3 and 4 in synovial tissue from patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: Toll-like receptor expression in early and longstanding arthritis,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 58, no. 12, pp. 3684–3692, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. Ciechomska, R. Cant, J. Finnigan, J. M. van Laar, and S. O'Reilly, “Role of toll-like receptors in systemic sclerosis,” Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine, vol. 15, article e9, 17 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. S. Akira, “Mammalian Toll-like receptors,” Current Opinion in Immunology, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 5–11, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. M. Reynolds, B. P. Pappu, J. Peng et al., “Toll-like receptor 2 signaling in CD4+ T lymphocytes promotes T helper 17 responses and regulates the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease,” Immunity, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 692–702, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. M. Al Shamsi, A. Shahin, Y. Iwakura, M. L. Lukic, and E. P. Mensah-Brown, “Pam3CSK(4) enhanced beta cell loss and diabetogenesis: the roles of IFN-gamma and IL-17,” Clinical Immunology, vol. 149, no. 1, pp. 86–96, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. E. Y. Abu-Rish, Y. Amrani, and M. J. Browning, “Toll-like receptor 9 activation induces expression of membrane-bound B-cell activating factor (BAFF) on human B cells and leads to increased proliferation in response to both soluble and membrane-bound BAFF,” Rheumatology, vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 1190–1201, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. A. N. Theofilopoulos, R. Gonzalez-Quintial, B. R. Lawson et al., “Sensors of the innate immune system: their link to rheumatic diseases,” Nature Reviews Rheumatology, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 146–156, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. Y. T. Koh, J. C. Scatizzi, J. D. Gahan et al., “Role of nucleic acid-sensing TLRs in diverse autoantibody specificities and anti-nuclear antibody-producing B cells,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 190, no. 10, pp. 4982–4990, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  47. S. H. Hwang, H. Lee, M. Yamamoto et al., “B cell TLR7 expression drives anti-RNA autoantibody production and exacerbates disease in systemic lupus erythematosus-prone mice,” Journal of Autoimmunity, vol. 189, no. 12, pp. 5786–5796, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. F. J. Barrat, T. Meeker, J. H. Chan, C. Guiducci, and R. L. Coffmann, “Treatment of lupus-prone mice with a dual inhibitor of TLR7 and TLR9 leads to reduction of autoantibody production and amelioration of disease symptoms,” European Journal of Immunology, vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 3582–3586, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. R. D. Pawar, A. Ramanjaneyulu, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Lech, S. Segerer, and H.-J. Anders, “Inhibition of Toll-like receptor-7 (TLR-7) or TLR-7 plus TLR-9 attenuates glomerulonephritis and lung injury in experimental lupus,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 1721–1731, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus